Section 3, cont.Punishment • Physical (Corporal) Punishment • Supported in the Bible • Essential to keep the paternalistic character of slavery • Kept individual slaves under control • Used as an example to other slaves to keep control • Caused other slaves to work together and protect one another
Louisiana Slave Displays Scars • In this 1863 photograph a former Louisiana slave displays the scars that resulted from repeated whippings. Although this degree of scarring is exceptional, few slaves were able to avoid being whipped at least once in their lives. Source: National Archives and Records Administration
The Domestic Slave Trade • The Cotton Kingdom expands to the South and West • Upper South sells excess slaves to Lower South • 50% of Upper South slaves traded during Antebellum Period • Many feared being “sold down river” • many slaves in Chesapeake Region escaped
A Black Father Being Sold Away from His Family • This woodcut of a black father being sold away from his family appeared in The Child’s Anti-Slavery Book in 1860. Family ruptures, like the one shown, were among the more common and tragic aspects of slavery, especially in the upper South, where masters claimed slavery was “mild.” Source: Courtesy of the Library of Congress
The Domestic Slave Trade • Traders operated slave prisons or slave pens • Baltimore, Richmond (VA), Charleston (SC), New Orleans • Washington DC (one of the largest and near the US Capitol) • Slaves were chained or roped together and then walked on foot in coffles
A Slave Coffle • Before 1850 Washington, D.C. was a major depot in the domestic (or interstate) slave trade. This woodcut portrays a slave coffle—a group of slaves bound together—passing the Capitol Building in about 1815. Source: Courtesy of the Library of Congress
The Domestic Slave Trade • This business was opposite of the claim that slavery was a benign institution • Description often used by slaveholders
Section 3 Essential Questions • Create an essential question from each of the headings we are studying: • Punishment • The Domestic Slave Trade
Section 3 Essential Questions • Why was physical punishment so widely used by slaveholders? • What was the domestic slave trade?
Section 5: The Socialization of Slaves • Surviving Slavery • Used folk tales (Brer Rabbit) to teach children how to conduct themselves • Learned to watch what they said around whites • Learned not to talk back • Learned to camouflage their feelings • Turned toward religion
Religion • Helped in coping • Mid-19th century most slaves Protestant • Biracial Baptist and Methodist churches • Racially segregated seating • Shared cemeteries and joined together in communion • Plantation churches told slaves “Servants obey your masters” • Preferred semi-secret black church • Moses and deliverance • Emotional
Plantation Burial • British artist John Antrobus completed this painting in about 1860. It is named Plantation Burial and suggests the importance of religion among enslaved African Americans. Source: John Antrobus, Plantation Burial, oil painting, The Historical New Orleans Collection. 1960.46
Section 5 Essential Questions • Create an essential question from the headings we are studying: • Surviving Slavery and Religion
Section 5 Essential Questions • How did African Americans adapt to life under slavery?