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Passive voice

Passive voice

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Passive voice

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  1. Passive voice

  2. Thereward of a thingwell done istohave done it. Ralph Waldo Emerson

  3. Se forma con el verbo “to be” + Past Participle Usos: • Cuando el que realiza la acción (AGENTE) es desconocido, o poco importante. • My housewaspainted • Para destacar la acción, o el objeto, mas que la persona que lo hizo (+ impersonal) • The room must be cleaned

  4. + Se forma con el verbo “to be” + el participio ( -ed / 3ª c) del verbo principal Anastronautwassentintospace - Hay que añadir “not” (n´t) al “to be”. Si la frase lleva un modal, un verbo en futuro simple o un tiempo compuesto, lo que negamos es el modal, will o have / has. Anastronautwasn´tsentintospace ? El orden es to be + el sujeto + el participio. Si es un modal, un verbo en futuro simple o un tiempo compuesto, la pasiva empieza con el modal o el auxiliar, igual que en la activa. Wasanastronautsentintospace?

  5. TRANSFORMACIÓN ACTIVA - PASIVA Reality shows dominate TV 1. Identificar el objeto de la activa (OD/OI) 2. Lo ponemos de sujeto de la pasiva 3. Identificamos el tiempo del verbo. 4. Ponemos “to be” en el mismo tiempo + Participio del verbo (am-is-are) is 5. Ponemos el sujeto de la activa como agente de la pasiva precedido por “by” (dominate - Present Simple) (3ª col. /-ed) TV isdominated byreality shows

  6. TRUCOS • Al pasar una frase afirmativa cuenta el número de palabras que tiene el verbo en activa .En pasiva tiene que tener una más. • Al poner en pasiva una frase interrogativa debes empezar por el primer auxiliar. • Si la pasiva es negativa “not” va con el primer auxiliar.

  7. TRANSFORMACIÓN ACTIVA-PASIVA Reality showsdominate TV Sujeto verbo C D TV is dominatedby reality shows Sujeto verbo pasivo agente(by)

  8. CAMBIOS EN LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES Letters arewritten • I write letters • I wrote letters • I will write letters • I am going to write letters • I am writing letters • I was writing letters Letters were written Letters will bewritten Letters are going to bewritten Letters are beingwritten Letters were beingwritten

  9. The squatters were arrested last week We will buy her a present tomorrow Techno music is often heard on Turkish radio Tommy was being interviewed by a reporter Portuguese is spoken in Brazil You will be paid more than other employees Passive Active Passive Passive Passive Passive Which sentences are active? Which sentences are passive?

  10. Brian 1.was feeling /was being felt very nervous as he waited in the secretary’s office. He 2.interview/was going to be interviewed for a new job and the secretary was told / had told him to wait until Mr Grace was ready to see him. Brian really 3.needed /was really needed this job and he hoped he would get it. Finally, he 4.invited/was invited into Mr Grace’s office. He 5.was asked /asked many questions by Mr Grace and he 6.answered/ was answered all of them very well

  11. Brian 1. …………… (tell) about the job requirements. “You 2. ……………… (expect) to work from nine until five every day. You 3. ……………. (give) a lunch break of half an hour,” Mr Grace told him. “If you are late, money 4. …… (deduct) from your salary”, he 5 .……………….. (continue). It 6. ………….. (take) Brian a few seconds to realise that the job was his. Use thepassiveor active was told are expected are given will be deducted continued took

  12. Choose the correct answer. 1. The winner will award / will be awarded a gold medal. 2. Too much red meat is thought / thought to be unhealthy. 3. When we arrived, the police were taking away / were being taken away the cars. 4. America discovered / was discovered by Columbus in 1492. 5. Everyone knows that water boils / is boiled at 100 degrees Celsius. 6. This afternoon, Tim’s dog is checking / is being checked by the vet.

  13. Somebody took the money from my pocket yesterday • The money was taken from my pocket yesterday • The letters will be written tomorrow • This song was voted number one by the listeners • The interior of the old building had been improved by the designer • The competition is always won by our school’s football team • I will write the letters tomorrow • The listeners voted this song number one • The designer had improved the interior of the old building • Our school’s football team always wins the competitions

  14. Complete the dialogues with the verbs in brackets. Use the passive. 1. When will we know the result of the competition? It ……………………………… (announce) next week. 2. Why is the shoe shop on High Street closed? It ……………………………… (repaint). 3. How did the film end? The bad guy …………………………… (kill). 4. Why is Patty so excited? She ……………………………… (offer) a big part in the play. will be announced is being repainted was killed has been offered

  15. Write sentences with the words below. Use the passive. 1. in China rice / eat / with chopsticks / . 2. the school football team / not beat / this season / . 3. the test / give / to the Year 11 students / at this moment / . 4. your house / break into / last week / ? 5. next week / everything in the shop / sell / at half price / . In China, rice is eaten with chopsticks. The school football team hasn’t been beaten this season. The test is being given to the Year 11 students at this moment. Was your house broken into last week? Next week, everything in the shop will be sold / /is being sold at half price.

  16. Complete the sentences with the verbs in brackets. Use the active or passive form. 1. Every winter, the children in Alaska ……………………………… (build) snowmen. 2. Details of the fire ……………………………… (publish) in tomorrow’s papers. 3. When I was five, I ……………………………… (give) a puppy for my birthday. 4. The meal will soon be ready. It ……………………………… (prepare) now. 5. Robby is upset because he ………………………… (not receive) an e-mail from Kate yet. 6. When ……………… the time of the next meeting ……………………… (announce)? build will be published was given is being prepared hasn’t received will be announced

  17. Complete each sentence according to the meaning of the original sentences. • 1. Mistakes are made when people are careless. • Careless people ……………………………… mistakes. • 2. Nobody has seen Jim since last week. • Jim ……………………………… since last week. • 3. Women are wearing their skirts longer this year. • Skirts ……………………………… longer this year. • 4. The scene was being filmed in the village square. • They ……………………………… the scene in the village square. • 5. Technicians will use new technology to create the special effects. • New technology ……………………………… to create the special effects. • What did the thieves steal from the museum? • What ……………………………… from the museum? make hasn’t been seen are being worn were filming will be used was stolen

  18. Complete each sentence according to the meaning of the original sentences 1. They’ll sell all the tickets before we get there. All the tickets 2. The decorations were being taken down when we arrived. When we arrived, he 3. The country is electing a new government. A new government 4. You make this cake with butter and a lot of eggs. This cake 5. Look! They’ve replaced the old lights. Look! The old lights will be sold before we get there was taking down the decorations is being elected (by the country) is made with butter and a lot of eggs have been replaced

  19. Complete the passage with the verbs in brackets. Use the passive. Filmstars’ lifestyles affect their children. One example is that when films (1) …………………………. (make), filmstars often move to different locations. Their children (2) ………………… (send) to new schools and have to make new friends. When Meryl Streep’s son Henry (3) ……………………… (enrol) in yet another school, he complained bitterly. Meryl realised her children (4) …………………………… (affect) by the constant moves. As a result, she kept the family in one place for the next 20 years. Another example is unwanted publicity. If a filmstar (5) …………………… (catch) by the paparazzi doing something stupid or embarrassing, you can be sure it will appear on TV and (6) ……….. almost certainly …………… (see) by the star’s children. On several occasions, the media (7) ……………………………… (attack) for not being more sensitive to the children of celebrities. are being made are sent was enrolled were being affected is caught be seen will has / have been attacked

  20. Choose the correct answer. 1. More than 400 guests have invited / have been invited to the wedding. 2 Newspapers can buy / can be bought at the bookshop. 3. Steven Spielberg will direct / will be directed the film. 4. Computer graphics used / are used in many animated films. 5. We were disappointed that we didn’t invite / weren’t invited to the party. 6. The eclipse expected / is expected to begin at midnight. 7. Who designed / was designed the costumes for Pride and Prejudice?

  21. Some verbs can have two objects For example, give, ask, offer, pay, show, teach, tell We gave the police the information Or We gave the information to the police object 1 object 2 So, it is possible to make two passive sentences: • The police were given the information • The information was given to the police • When we use these verbs in the passive, most often we begin with the person: • I was offered the job but I refused it • You will be given plenty of time to decide • The men were paid £ 200 to do the work.

  22. Write questions with the words below. Use the passive 1. how much / money / steal / in yesterday’s robbery 2. where / the best ice cream / in the world / make 3. the game / cancel / if it rains tomorrow . How much money was stolen in yesterday’s robbery? Where is the best ice cream in the world made? Will the game be cancelled if it rains tomorrow?

  23. Rewrite the sentences in the correct passive form. 1. No one is using that room at the moment. 2.John ought to sell his paintings to the museum. 3.They are going to build a bridge here. 4.My favourite musician wrote that song. 5.Dan won’t return the book to the library. 6.Sharon hasn’t given the news to Paul. 7.By 10 o’clock, the mechanic had repaired the car. That room is not being used at the moment. / At the moment, that room is not being used John’s paintings ought to be sold to the museum. A bridge is going to be built here. That song was written by my favourite musician. The book won’t be returned (by Dan) to the library. / The book won’t be returned to the library (by Dan). The news hasn’t been given to Paul (by Sharon). The car had been repaired by 10 o’clock (by the mechanic).

  24. Rewrite the sentences in the correct active form. 1. Tim is going to be punished by his mum. 2.Some of the stories were written by a famous author. 3.The dog must be walked after dinner. 4.Paul hasn’t been examined by the doctor yet. Tim’s mum is going to punish him. A famous author wrote some of the stories. You / Someone must walk the dog after dinner. / After dinner, you / someone must walk the dog. The doctor hasn’t examined Paul yet.

  25. Complete the passage with the verbs in brackets. Use the correct active or passive form. There may be more than one possible answer. Thanks to an online bookshop called Better World Books, thousands of people (1) ……………………… (give) the chance to help the world while enjoying a good read. Better World Books is a business whose profits (2) ……………………… (use) to help society. When the company first (3) ……………………… (begin), the founders (4) ………………(have) the idea of selling second-hand books online. They decided that the money from the book sales (5) ……………………… (donate) to reading programmes all over the world. More than ten million books (6) ……………………… (collect), and more than $4 million (7) ……………………… (raise) for programmes like Books for Africa and the Prison Book Programme. Some of the books on the Better World site (8) ……………………… (receive) from libraries that have too many copies of the same book. Some books (9) ……………………… (give) to Better World Books by retail bookshops that don’t want to cause pollution by throwing away unwanted books. The end result is the same: if you buy a book from Better World Books, your money (10) ……………………… (make) a difference in the world. have been given / are being given are used / are being used began had would be donated / was going to be donated have been collected has been raised were given / are given / have been given will make have been received / were received / are received

  26. Which tense are they? Passive perfect Present perfect 1 A • The laws have forced teenagers into illegal employment • Teenagers have been forced into illegal employment • These laws had barred many young people from school • Many young people had been barred from school Present perfect passive 2 3 Past perfect P 4 Past perfect passive Which are active and which are passive? A P

  27. 1. What is the difference between active and passive forms In the passive “been” has been added • The laws have forced teenagers into illegal employment • Teenagers have been forced into illegal employment • These laws had barred many young people from school • Many young people had been barred from school When is the active used? When the subject is important When is the passive used? When the subject is unknown or unimportant

  28. Passive perfect - Joke A man was visiting a friend at a hospital Yes. Yesterday the boss came up to me and said, “What’s happened to uhmmm… what-his name? That’s so nice You have been missed at the factory you know

  29. The body of a man was found in a house yesterday. The body had been chopped up into a thousand pieces and placed in a large plastic bag. Police have not ruled out suicide

  30. A man went to the doctor. He wanted a new brain. Well, we have two types: a women’s brain that costs 1000 € and a man’s brain that costs 12000 € No, absolutely not. But the man’s brain ………………………….(never/ used) has never been used Does that mean that the man’s brain is better?

  31. Mr Smith ……………………… (employ) as a teacher before he became a headmaster Andrew ……………….……… (bar) from school. I hope he won’t get into trouble Sue ……………..………….. (work) part-time before becoming a full-time employee Mary …………..…………… (choose) for the new job A new Olympic record …….……………. ( just set) Write present perfect simple or past perfect simple had been employed has been barred had worked has been chosen has just been set

  32. Her employer had paid her the minimum She……………………………………. Mr Jones offered Mike a new job Mike……………………………. We have based the article on a report The article……………….. Many people are employed in the car The car industry……………. The report will be published in an important journal They ………………………. The children have been forced into illegal employment The laws………………………. The students’ results were being studied by the headmaster The headmaster…………………………. She had been paid the minimum Mike was offered a new job by Mr Jones The article has been based on a report The car industry employs many people The will publish the report in an important journal The laws have forced the children into illegal employment The headmaster was studying the students’ results

  33. (be) supposed to… It is said that… He is said to… Henry is very old. Nobody knows how old he is, but: It is said that he is 108 years old. Or.. He is said to be 108 years old Both these sentences mean: “ People say that he is 108 years old You can use these structures with a number of other verbs, especially: Thought believed considered reported known expected alleged understood • The police are looking for a missing boy • It is believed that the boy is wearing a white T-shirt and blue jeans • The boy is believed to be wearing a white T-shirt and blue jeans • A friend of mine has been arrested • It is alleged that he kicked a policeman • He is alleged to have kicked a policeman These structures are often used in news reports

  34. (be) supposed to… Sometimes it is supposed to… = it is said to… • Let´s go and see the film. It´s supposed to be very good (=it is said to be very good) • Why was he arrested? He´s supposed to have kicked a policeman (=he is said to have • kicked a policeman) But sometimes supposed to has a different meaning. “Something is supposed to happen”= It is planned, arranged or expected. Often this is different from what really happens: • I´d better hurry. It´s nearly 8 o´clock and I´m supposed to be meeting Ann • at 8.15 (=I have arranged to meet Ann, I said I would meet her) • The train was supposed to arrive at 11.30 but it was an hour late. You´re not supposed to do something = it is not allowed or advisable for you to do it • You´re not supposed to park your car here. It´s private parking only

  35. The bathroom has been modernised The fence has been repaired The roof has been re-tiled The central heating has been modernised The grass has been cut The front door has been put in Repair Modernise Put in Re-tile (tejar- revestir de tejas) Cut repair Bathroom Fence Roof Central heating Grass Front door

  36. Have /get something done

  37. Peter Has his HAIRCUT EVERY MONTH • Who cuts the hair ? • Who orders the action? • Who receives the action TOM HADTHE ROOFREPAIRED YESTERDAY

  38. Rule / Meaning • We use this structure to express actions that we ask other people to do for us • Utilizamos esta estructura para expresar acciones que le pedimos otra gente que haga por nosotros • i.e. • Peterhad the house paintedlast summer • Who painted the house? • How would you translate this sentence? • Who receives the action of the verb?

  39. Rule / Form • Have + object + past participle • The government hadthe reportpublished • Get + object+ past participle • The government gotthe reportpublished

  40. “Have” y “get” se usan indistintamente, aunque “get” es mas informal. • Esta estructura “ have/get + complemento directo + participio pasado “ se puede • utilizar con la mayoría de los tiempos verbales. • Ann had her computer repaired last week. • The band will have their instruments repaired soon. • I have had my hair cut • La estructura tiene un sentido pasivo, pues el complemento directo que va en • medio (object) recibe la acción del verbo que va en participio. Aunque se suele • traducir en voz activa. • My watch broke, so I had it repaired yesterday • ( Se me estropeó el reloj, así que me lo arreglaron ayer)

  41. Complete the sentences with the correct passive or causative form of the verbs in brackets. • 1. I hear something! I think we ……………………………… (follow). • You’ll have to walk to school. • Alan ……………… his car ……………… (repair) and can’t drive you. • 3. Rose can’t find her car. She thinks it ………………………… (steal). are being followed is having / getting repaired has been stolen

  42. Complete the sentences using a causative form. • 1. We didn’t design our sitting room. We ……………… it ……………… . • Bill doesn’t prepare his own meals. He ……………… his meals ……………… • by his mother. • I won’t repair the roof myself. I ……………… the roof …………… …… by • a builder. • Frank isn’t taking the photographs. He ……………… the photos ……………… • by a professional. had / got designed has / gets prepared will have / will get repaired is having / is getting taken

  43. Complete the sentences with the verbs below. Use the causative. arrange • paint • check • make • translate have had / have got • 1. Since I was a child, I ……………… my teeth ……………… every six months. • 2. Look! The neighbours ……………… their front door …… ………… red. • A year after she wrote the book, she ……………… it …………… … into • French. • 4. Jim never buys suits. He ……………… them …… ………… for him. • Next time we go abroad, we ……………… our trip ……………… by a travel • agent. checked are having painted have had translated had / got made has / gets will have / will get arranged

  44. Rewrite the sentences. Use the causative form. 1. You need to fix this lamp. You should 2.She asked the maid to clean her room. She 3.We’ll tell the technician to check the computer. We 4.They are adding a room on to Janet’s house. Janet You should have / get this lamp fixed. She had / got the room cleaned by the maid. We’ll have / get the computer checked by the technician. Janet is having / getting a room added on to her house.