Part V Chapter Sixteen Adolescence: Psychosocial Development Identity Relationships Sexuality Sadness and Anger Prepared by Madeleine Lacefield Tattoon, M.A.
Identity A consistent definition of one’s self as a unique individual, in terms of roles, attitudes, beliefs, and aspirations.
Identity vs. Diffusion • Erikson’s terms for the fifth stage of development • the person tries to figure out “Who am I?” • confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt.
Identity Achievement • Erikson’s term for the attainment of identity • the point at which a person understands who he or she is as a unique individual • in accord with pastexperiences and future plans.
Identity, cont. • Not Yet Achievement • identity diffusion is the opposite of identity achievement… • it is a situation in which an adolescent does not seem to know or care what his or her identity is. • “Whatever.”
Identity Foreclosure • Erickson’s term for premature identity formation • occurs when an adolescent adopts parents’ or society’s roles and values wholesale, without questioning and analysis.
Identity Moratorium • A way for adolescents to postpone making identity achievement choices • finding an accepted way to avoid identity achievement. • going to college is the most common example
Identity, cont. • religious identity • few teenagers achieve • most religions expect young people to struggle with theological questions • sexual or gender identity • “sex/sexual” referring to biological male/female characteristics • “gender” referring to cultural and social characteristics
Identity, cont. • “political” or “ethnic” identity • political, identifying with a party • ethnic, identifying with a person • vocational identity • few teenagers can find meaningful work • most available jobs are different from in the past • the required skills for many vocations take years to attain – makes it premature to select at age 16
Relationships • Adults and teenagers • Conflicts at home • bickering – repeated, petty arguments What do you see in the body position of these two that suggests a generational conflict?
Relationships • Closeness with the family • Communication • talk openly with one another • Support • rely on one another • Connectedness • emotionally close • Control • encourage or limit autonomy • parental monitoring – parent knowledge about child’s whereabouts
Relationships • Ongoing influence • Peer Support • Cliques and Crowds • Clique • A group of adolescents made up of close friends who are loyal to one another while excluding outsiders • Crowd • A large group of adolescents who have something in common but who are not necessarily related
Relationships • Choosing friends • peer pressure • social pressure to conform to peer activities • deviance training • destructive peer support in which one person shows another how to rebel against authority or social norms • peer selection • ongoing, active process whereby adolescents select friends based on shared interests and values • peer facilitation • encouragement adolescents give one another to partake in activities or behaviors they would not otherwise do alone – constructive or destructive
Relationships • Friends of Both Sexes • parents sometime worry about boy-girl contact.. • Immigrant Youth • millions of immigrants born abroad or those whose parents were born in another nation • one-third in Frankfurt • one-half in Amsterdam • two-thirds in Los Angeles and New York
Sexuality • Before Committed Partnership • groups of friends, exclusively one sex or the other • a loose association of girls and boys, with public interactions within a crowd • small mixed-sex groups of the advanced members of the crowd • formation of couples, with private intimacies
Sexuality • Romances • first appears in high school
Sexuality • Homosexual Youth • complications slow down the formation of friendships and romantic bonds • Learning About Sex • parents and societies continue to be concerned about adolescent sexual relationships • Peers • sexual behavior is strongly influenced by information, and examples of other adolescents
Sexuality, cont. • Parents • play a pivotal role in teenagers sexual decisions • Sex Education in School • U.S. began a massive experiment in 1998 • Sexual Behavior • not all adolescents are having sex • rates vary from nation to nation • teen births overall have decreased dramatically in every nation • the use of “protection” has increased • the abortion rate is also down
Sadness and Anger • Comorbidity • a situation in which two or more unreleated illnesses or disorders occur at the same time • Depression • Clinical depression • Suicide • Suicidal ideation • Parasuicide • Cluster suicides
Sadness and Anger, cont. • More destructiveness • Breaking the law • Incidence • Prevalence
Sadness and Anger, cont. • Cause of delinquency • Life-course-persistent offender • Adolescence-limited offender