Part V Chapter Sixteen Adolescence: Psychosocial Development • Identity • Relationships With Elders and Peers • Sexuality • Sadness and Anger
Identity • A consistent definition of one’s self as a unique individual, in terms of roles, attitudes, beliefs, and aspirations. • identity versus role confusion: Erikson’s terms for the fifth stage of development where person tries to figure out “Who am I?” but is confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt.
identity achievement • Erikson’s term for attainment of identity, or the point at which a person understands who he or she is as a unique individual.
Not Yet Achievement • identity diffusion: the opposite of identity achievement • adolescent does not seem to know or care what his or her identity is
Foreclosure • premature identity formation • Occurs when an adolescent adopts parents’ or society’s roles and values without questioning. • Moratorium • A way for adolescents to postpone making identity achievement choices by finding an accepted way to avoid identity achievement. • Going to college is the most common example.
Identity • Religious identity • few teenagers achieve • most religions expect young people to struggle with theological questions • Sexual or gender identity • sex/sexual referring to biological male/female characteristics • gender referring to cultural and social characteristics
Political or ethnic identity • political: identifying with a party • ethnic: identifying with a person • Vocational identity • few teenagers can find meaningful work • most available jobs different from in the past • required skills for many vocations take years to attain • premature to select at age 16
Relationships With Elders and Peers • Conflicts With Parents • bickering • repeated petty arguments • What do you see in the body position of these two that suggests a generational conflict?
Closeness Within the family • Communication • talk openly with one another • Support • rely on one another • Connectedness • emotionally close • Control • encourage or limit autonomy
Cliques and Crowds • Clique • group of adolescents made up of close friends who are loyal to one another while excluding outsiders • Crowd • A large group of adolescents who have something in common but who are not necessarily related
Choosing friends • peer pressure • Social pressure to conform to peer activities. • deviance training • Destructive peer support in which one person shows another how to rebel against authority or social norms. • peer selection • select friends based on shared interests and values • peer facilitation • encouragement adolescents give one another to partake in activities or behaviors they would not otherwise do alone • constructive or destructive
Friends of Both Sexes • Parents sometime worry about boy-girl contact. • Immigrant Youth • Millions of immigrants born abroad or those whose parents were born in another nation.
Sexuality • Sequences: From Asexual to Active • groups of friends • exclusively one sex or the other • loose association of girls and boys, with public interactions within a crowd • small mixed-sex groups of the advanced members of the crowd • formation of couples, with private intimacies
Romances • first appears in high school
Homosexual youth • Complications slow down the formation of friendships and romantic bonds. • Learning about sex • Parents and societies continue to be concerned about adolescent sexual relationships. • Peers • Sexual behavior is strongly influenced by information, and examples of other adolescents.
Parents • Play pivotal role in teenage sexual decisions. • Sex education in school • U.S. began massive experiment in 1998. • Sexual Behavior • Not all adolescents are having sex. • Rates vary from nation to nation. • Teen births overall have decreased dramatically in every nation. • The use of protection has increased. • The abortion rate is also down.
Comorbidity • Situation in which two or more unrelated illnesses or disorders occur at the same time. • Depression • Clinical depression • Suicide • Suicidal ideation • Parasuicide • Cluster suicides
Sadness and Anger • More destructiveness • Breaking the law • incidence • prevalence
Cause of delinquency • life-course-persistent offender • adolescence-limited offender