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Part V

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Part V

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  1. Part V Chapter Sixteen Adolescence: Psychosocial Development • Identity • Relationships With Elders and Peers • Sexuality • Sadness and Anger

  2. Identity • A consistent definition of one’s self as a unique individual, in terms of roles, attitudes, beliefs, and aspirations. • identity versus role confusion: Erikson’s terms for the fifth stage of development where person tries to figure out “Who am I?” but is confused as to which of many possible roles to adopt.

  3. identity achievement • Erikson’s term for attainment of identity, or the point at which a person understands who he or she is as a unique individual.

  4. Not Yet Achievement • identity diffusion: the opposite of identity achievement • adolescent does not seem to know or care what his or her identity is

  5. Foreclosure • premature identity formation • Occurs when an adolescent adopts parents’ or society’s roles and values without questioning. • Moratorium • A way for adolescents to postpone making identity achievement choices by finding an accepted way to avoid identity achievement. • Going to college is the most common example.

  6. Identity • Religious identity • few teenagers achieve • most religions expect young people to struggle with theological questions • Sexual or gender identity • sex/sexual referring to biological male/female characteristics • gender referring to cultural and social characteristics

  7. Political or ethnic identity • political: identifying with a party • ethnic: identifying with a person • Vocational identity • few teenagers can find meaningful work • most available jobs different from in the past • required skills for many vocations take years to attain • premature to select at age 16

  8. Relationships With Elders and Peers • Conflicts With Parents • bickering • repeated petty arguments • What do you see in the body position of these two that suggests a generational conflict?

  9. Closeness Within the family • Communication • talk openly with one another • Support • rely on one another • Connectedness • emotionally close • Control • encourage or limit autonomy

  10. Cliques and Crowds • Clique • group of adolescents made up of close friends who are loyal to one another while excluding outsiders • Crowd • A large group of adolescents who have something in common but who are not necessarily related

  11. Choosing friends • peer pressure • Social pressure to conform to peer activities. • deviance training • Destructive peer support in which one person shows another how to rebel against authority or social norms. • peer selection • select friends based on shared interests and values • peer facilitation • encouragement adolescents give one another to partake in activities or behaviors they would not otherwise do alone • constructive or destructive

  12. Friends of Both Sexes • Parents sometime worry about boy-girl contact. • Immigrant Youth • Millions of immigrants born abroad or those whose parents were born in another nation.

  13. Sexuality • Sequences: From Asexual to Active • groups of friends • exclusively one sex or the other • loose association of girls and boys, with public interactions within a crowd • small mixed-sex groups of the advanced members of the crowd • formation of couples, with private intimacies

  14. Romances • first appears in high school

  15. Homosexual youth • Complications slow down the formation of friendships and romantic bonds. • Learning about sex • Parents and societies continue to be concerned about adolescent sexual relationships. • Peers • Sexual behavior is strongly influenced by information, and examples of other adolescents.

  16. Parents • Play pivotal role in teenage sexual decisions. • Sex education in school • U.S. began massive experiment in 1998. • Sexual Behavior • Not all adolescents are having sex. • Rates vary from nation to nation. • Teen births overall have decreased dramatically in every nation. • The use of protection has increased. • The abortion rate is also down.

  17. Comorbidity • Situation in which two or more unrelated illnesses or disorders occur at the same time. • Depression • Clinical depression • Suicide • Suicidal ideation • Parasuicide • Cluster suicides

  18. Sadness and Anger • More destructiveness • Breaking the law • incidence • prevalence

  19. Cause of delinquency • life-course-persistent offender • adolescence-limited offender