Part V The Dawn of the Industrial Age, 1750-1914
Chapter 23 Age of Revolution Industrial Revolution American Revolution French Revolution (multiply times) Greek Revolution Spanish Revolution Italian and German Revolts Belgian Revolution
Art Changes in artistic views from glorified irrationals to realistic portrayals Romanticism Romantic writers tried to violate traditional standards 1900 painters and sculptors became increasingly abstract in their work
Political Changes Karl Marx->socialism->pretty much communism but not completely Feminist movements come into play 1900’s Revisionism->says Marx’s wrong
Reunification of Italy and Germany Italy under Camillo di Cavour Allied Italy with France 1859-1870 Germany under Otto Von Bismarck 1815-1871
Cultural Transforms Emphasis on Consumption and leisure Scientific Knowledge improves Darwin's (blasphemous) Theory of evolution Albert Einstein formalized his work Sigmund Freud began work on human subconscious
Chapter 24Industrialization and Imperialism: The Making of the European Global Order • The Europeans, in a similar way to their colonization of the Americas, began to form empires in Asia and Africa. • With their advanced weaponry and disciplined armies, the Europeans were able to create these empires. • In taking these territories for their own, the Europeans brought about a shift of power in the world, from the Asian and Middle Eastern countries to the Europeans. • This shift also shifted the subject of European rivalries. Where before, the Europeans competed against the Asian people and Muslims, the Europeans began to compete among themselves. One of the major rivalries that formed was that between the French and the British.
The Reason for Colonization • The Europeans began something called “partition”, the process of dividing nations into colonies among themselves. • This was a haphazard process at first and counteractive as well, as it hindered the Europeans main reason for colonies, profits. • The Europeans created colonies mostly to make money. This drive for profits is partially why the Europeans grew to be major world powers. • And thus, fueled by both rivalries and a desire for money, the Europeans began their colonization of Asia and Africa.
The Process of Colonization • The Europeans began their conquest through involvement in the internal conflicts of the foreign lands. They would lend out their services in exchange for money and the control of land. • Following this pattern, the Europeans gained more and more land, eventually controlling huge spaces of land, including close to the entire subcontinent of India. • Though they technically controlled the colonies, some Europeans generally allowed those who were in power to stay in power. This allowed people more conscientious of the natives of the colony to rule them, leading to less resentment. • These systems were called presidencies, and were generally used by the British for their colonies in Africa and Asia. • There wasn’t much resistance to this process in countries like India, where there was very little national identity or pride.
Early Problems with Colonization • Early attempts at colonization were plagued by corruption in the system. • This corruption was embodied by Europeans extorting money from the natives in colonies. • This sort of thing led to the Bengal Famine in 1770, which killed one third of the people in Bengal. • These early examples of corruption were fixed through the reforms done by Charles Cornwallis. • Meshing of Cultures • Unlike the segregation found in later colonies, early European settlers and natives meshed in the colonies. • Traditions mixed, ways of life adapted, and even things such as ethnicity, religion, and dress fused between the two cultures. • Education was not something that mixed though. Western people gave Western Education to natives, rather than having traditional schools, if they even existed, teach them. • This move was strongly supported by many Christian groups in Europe, who believed Western Education to be much better than that of the natives. • The Separation of Cultures • As time went on, the Europeans began to feel a sense of superiority to the Natives. This feeling was called white racial supremacy, and it caused the Europeans to separate themselves from the natives of the colonies. • The natives were soon subject to many taxes, and worked for much less or no pay, even though they were doing the same sort of jobs as they had in years past. • As this went on, the Europeans extorted more and more raw materials out of their colonies. With their advanced technology, the Europeans delve farther into the untamed areas of their colonies, and gained many resources through it.
Meshing of Cultures • Unlike the segregation found in later colonies, early European settlers and natives meshed in the colonies. • Traditions mixed, ways of life adapted, and even things such as ethnicity, religion, and dress fused between the two cultures. • Education was not something that mixed though. Western people gave Western Education to natives, rather than having traditional schools, if they even existed, teach them. • This move was strongly supported by many Christian groups in Europe, who believed Western Education to be much better than that of the natives.
The Separation of Cultures • As time went on, the Europeans began to feel a sense of superiority to the Natives. This feeling was called white racial supremacy, and it caused the Europeans to separate themselves from the natives of the colonies. • The natives were soon subject to many taxes, and worked for much less or no pay, even though they were doing the same sort of jobs as they had in years past. • As this went on, the Europeans extorted more and more raw materials out of their colonies. With their advanced technology, the Europeans delve farther into the untamed areas of their colonies, and gained many resources through it.
Major Colonies • South Africa was a major European colony controlled by the Dutch, who where named Boers after staying in their South African colony for many years. • The Boers enslaved the natives, a move which would irk the British in the years to come, and they attempted to transform their colony into a city akin to Holland. • This colony, being very prosperous, attracted the British. They came in larger and larger numbers until the Boers began to feel threatened. The Boers then left on “The Great Trek” to discover a new area to settle down in. • In the 1850’s, the Boers established tow “Boer Republics”, where their pattern of harsh treatment of the natives, as shown by the frequent wars between the two groups, continued. • The British, yet again, began to travel to this colony, and they, yet again criticized the Boers for their unethical treatment of the natives. This caused tension to spark between the groups, leading to the “Boer War” I n 1899. • The British won this at a very high cost. They also had a sense of guilt about the whole ordeal. This is what caused the British to allow the unethical treatment of Natives by the Boers through much of the 20th century.
Pacific Colonies • The Pacific colonies, the major ones being New Zealand and Hawaii, followed the trends set by the Early American and Asian colonies. • The British influenced these colonies though intervention, like they had done in India, and they slowly gained the trust of the Natives. • Over time, the British gained control of the colonies. • This led to a melding of cultures, also like in the African and Asian colonies, but it also led to disease. • The Natives of these islands, like the Native Americans, were somewhat isolated, and didn’t have any immunity to the viruses brought over by the British. • This led to high numbers of casualties, but the British still held on to the colonies, replacing the diseased and dead natives with Asian workers.
Americas • Napoleon III sent Maximilian and Carlota • Maximilian dead by firing squad • Creoles helped start the revolutions • Needed help of Mesitzo but at first thought them to be to hard to control. • American Revolution provided the model on how to revolt. • French Revolution sparked some interest which soon disappeared with it turning radical. • Haiti lead by Toussaint L’Overture was hope for colored people everywhere. • When France invaded Portugal everything blew up with a guerrilla war and people confused on who was the true ruler, Napoleon's brother or the junta central.
In Mexico Miguel Hidalgo called upon American Indians and mestizos for help. He won some but was abandoned by Creoles who feared social rebellion • Conservative Creoles joined with Augustin de Iturbide occupied Mexico city in 1821 Iturbide named emperor of Mexico soon after. • In South America and Caribbean independence was the same as conquest of 16 century. Argentina and Venezuela were among first to opt for independence and first to get it. Caribbean islands of Cuba and Puerto Rica scared of slave rebellion remained loyal until end of 19 century • North South America started in Carcas in 1810 Simon Bolvar won a series of victories in 1817 to 1822. • Venezuela Colombia and Ecuador united into Gran Colombia until 1830 • In 1816 Rio de la Plata had proclaimed independence. • By 1825 all of Spanish South America had gained independence
Brazilian Independence • By end of 18 century Brazil had grown in population and economic importance. • European demand for Brazilian products made the slave trade go to the colony. • all of the traders wished for less taxes and more open trading markets but were afraid of a social revolution, thus making the independence movements in Minas Gerais in 1788 and Bahia in 1798 unsuccessful • Portuguese royal court and family sailed to Brazil for protection when France invaded • Soon it was opened to world trade and many improvements came. But it was not to last after Napoleon fell their status started to decline. When the leader left he left his son Pedro to lead the independence movement if it came. • In 1822 Pedro declared independence and became Dom Pedro I fighting lasted for a year.
New nation, old problems • Most agreed on everything. That is except for religion. Women were still not allowed to have public offices also mestizos were still not liked by all. • Mexico turned into republic in 1823 in 1860 Central America broke away from Mexico. Haiti got independence in 1844 • Uruguay formed by revolution between Argentina and Brazil • Peru and Boliva tried to form an union between 1828 and 1839 but regional rivalries and fears of neighbors undermined their efforts • Roads were poor and transportation was rudimentary. • Spanish America split into 18 separate nations. • More than a decade of war had destroyed the economy's of many areas. • Mobilization of large armies led to the rise of caudillios or independent rulers who dominated local areas by force. • Rafael Carrera who ruled Guatemala took interest of American Indian to heart, but most rulers did not. • Most leaders agreed that a republic was best but could not agree on what type of republic. • Liberals believed in rights of individual and dreamed of secular society • Conservatives believed in strong centralized state often wanted to maintain aspects of colonial society. To conservatives society was organic. • The church divided the conservatives from the liberals. • There was political turmoil in Latin America for the first 50 years after gaining independence. Because the general population might be roused by a leader but political ideology was not a problem for most of the population
Latin American Economies and world markets • Latin American economies stagnated in the aftermath of the wars of independence • dependence on exports made neocolonial ties. Near the midcentury some areas found new markets of trade which let the liberal governments make social and political changes. • Monroe Doctrine of 1823 stated that any attempt by a European power to colonize in the Americas would be seen as an unfriendly act by the United States. • Latin America became dependant on imports. • Only Cuba, a colony of Spain, expanded • in Peru the exportation of Guano made the country 10 million in just 30 years. Enough to abolish slavery • the cities began to grow and railways and new transportation systems replaced the old primitive ways. • By 1840 steamships improved communication with other countries • Liberals tried to institute programs in the 1820’s and 40’s but they were in places not ready for major change. • By 1840 the conservatives were back in charge • in the last quarter of the century the world economy was expanding and the liberals were returning to power in most of the Latin American countries • based on the new ideas of liberalism Auguste stressed observation and a scientific approach to the problem of society. • This shift was caused mostly by the second industrial revolution the application of science to industry created new demands for Latin American products. • The population doubled to more than 43 million in 60 years • after 1850 economies were growing rapidly • the desire to participate in capitalist expansion of Western economy dominated the thinking of Latin American leaders • The leaders of post 1860 governments were more mature and were making progress and life better for their people, but they did not trust their people.
The Mexican constitution of 1824 based on the French and United States was federalist. • Between 1832 and 1835 the liberals tried to institute reforms but were met with resistance when it came to the church. • In 1845 Texas was annexed by the United States and war was started. The United States quickly took over California and then occupied the Mexican capital and made the Mexicans sign the Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo which gave the United states about one half of Mexico but only 5 percent of population • the liberal revolt La Reforma began in 1854 and ended in less than a year. • The land was sold to individual people, the American Indians hoped it would make Mexico a nation of farmers but the bigger wealthy people bought the land and the American Indians lost what land they still had. By 1910 half of Mexico’s rural population was landless. • Church threatened those who held up the new constitution • conservatives turned to Napoleon when they saw that they may not win and asked for his help. • French landed in 1862 and took control of capital • Napoleon sent Maximilian to rule Mexico • After Juarez died in 1872 Porfirio Diaz came into power and made it a dictatorship and soon had a revolution
Argentina and Brazil • In 1820 the liberals gained control of Buenos Aires and instated reforms that made the cattle ranchers more powerful • like Mexico the liberals were met with resistance problem was trying to make a strong national government. • By 1831 federalists had taken over with Manuel de Rosas at the helm • Rosas made a program of weak central government that helped the ranchers and the port city but not much else • Rosas put his enemies into exile and they joined together and toppled him from power in 1852 • a new constitution was established in 1853 under Juan Bauista Alberdia • by 1862 after much fighting the Argentine Republic was created • the new liberal leaders put programs of reform into progress and Argentina flourished • After a long war with Paraguay the countries had created a sense of national unity and pride. • Brazil gained independence in 1822 and by 1824 liberal constitution was in place • Dom Pedro I was forced to abdicate in favor of his son but his son was to young to rule and had a series of regents directed against him. • Conflict between liberalism and conservatism was complicated • by 1830 Dom Pedro II was ready to rule and coffee had made it to 40 percent of Brazilian exports and by 1880 it had reached 60 percent • Slave trade increased because of the demand for coffee and in the last 50 years of trade 1.4 million slaves were taken to Brazil and Brazil did not abolish slavery until 1888 • immigrants started showing up in huge numbers between 1850 and 1875 more than 300,000 arrived in Brazil more than two thirds went to work in coffee estates loosing the hold of slavery and helping the abolished movement gain power. • The war with Paraguay became unpopular and the military took an active role in politics' • some estates became modernized • in 1871 a Republican party formed and began to gather support • in 1889 a bloodless military coup disposed of the emperor and established a republic under military men
New ideas brought by travelers and Latin America followed the lead of France • 1830 turned romantic • Novels sympathetic to the slaves appeared • Jose Hernandez in 1872 wrote Martin fierro about end of the gaucho • Many Latin American politicians were also good historians • Popular artistic expression was not valued by traditional elites • Women gained little ground even though some had tried taking up arms they could not vote hold public office or be lawyers • If they were unmarried they would stay under control of father until they were 25 • Once they were married the couldn’t work without the permission of their husband. • The lower class of women had more freedom • By 1842 girls and boys ages 7-15 had to go to school and in 1869 the first girls school was created • IN brazil only 1/10 of population was literate • Most new nations legally ended old societies castes
Mayan against central government in the Yucatan • Mass immigration begin in Ernest in 1870s • Most Latin American countries began the 1880’s as agrigan nations with rigid social market and dependent of world market • 1880-1920 economic boom • Tobacco and sugar- Cuba • Rubber and coffee-brazil • Copper and rope and silver-Mexico • Wool wheat- Argentina • Copper- Chile • This allowed more imports because of the higher revue and allowed the Latin American countries to be part of the world economy.
Ottomans • The Ottoman crisis was brought on by the succession of weak rulers. Selim III tried to reform the administration by constructing a new army. The Janissaries saw this act as a threat and revolted in 1807. Selim III was killed. Two decades later Muhmud II took power and continued where Selim stopped. He created a secret army and ended a janissary revolt.
From 1839 to 1876 the Tanzimat reforms took action. These reforms established: • New western-style universities • State postal system • Railways • All of these reforms caused the formation of a new constitution. After all this took place Abdul Hamid nullified this constitution to stop the growing threat from the west. Resistance to Abdul from the turkish intellectuals formed the Ottoman Society for Union and Progress. This group was formed to restore the 1976 constitution.
The Islamic Heartland • In 1801 Muhammad Ali became the new ruler of Egypt. Muhammad made many reforms involving the military and tried to Westernize Egypt. After Muhammad died his successors the khedives dropped his reforms and revitalized the Egyptian society. Cotton became a major export for Egypt at the expense of food. Egypt grew more dependent on the Europeans to by their cotton and there debt increased as they borrowed more and more money. After the construction of the Suez canal Egypt became one of the most strategic positions ever.
Thinkers such as al-Afghani and Muhammad Abduh stressed the need for Muslims to adopt western style learning. During the summer of 1882 a man named Ahmad Orabi revolted against the khedives. The khedives were assisted by the British and ended Orabi’s revolt. Although Egypt was not colonized the British had a big influence and ruled through the khedives.
Jihad: The revolt in the Sudan • After much oppression in Egypt due to the British Muhammad Achmad took power and formed the Mahdist group. The connection between him and Muhammad Ali helped his reputation grow and he lead a revolt against the Europeans. After Muhammad died one of his military commanders Khalifa Abdallahi succeeded and built a new state, but in the fall of 1896 British General Kitchener ended the Mahdist revolt. The British then regained power over the area.
The Qing • Nurhaci who ruled from 1559 to 1626 as the leader of the Manchu tribe. In 1644 the Manchu took Beijing and founded the Qing Dynasty. Manchu tried to preserve much of the Chinese political system. China was also involved in trade. Compradors were wealthy merchants who specialized in import-export trade.
The decline • By the late 18th century, it was obvious that like all other dynasty's before them the Qing was declining. The signs of decline were very easily spotted. The exam system was failing and the bureaucratic foundations of the empire were becoming corrupt. People were beginning to buy political posts for sons or brothers. With the decline in the empire the peasant class suffered greatly with food shortages and landlord demands. The yellow river also flooded due to poor maintenance on the dykes.
Barbarians posed a great threat during this time period. Opium was imported from the British and caused an addiction amongst the Chinese people. Finally from 1839 to 1841 the Opium war took place, ending in British victory. The British took Hong Kong and the ports were forced to be reopen. Finally the Chinese emperor sent Lin Zexu to stamp out the opium trade. Lin blockaded the port of Canton and destroyed all the opium in the port.
The end • In 1850-1864 the Taiping Rebellion led by Hong Xiuquan won many victories against the failing Qing. The Taiping offered many social reforms, land redistribution, and the liberation of women. In the last decades of the Qing dynasty were dominated by Cixi. In 1898 she and her army destroyed the last chance of reform. In 1898 the boxer rebellion was aimed at removing the Europeans from internal affairs. The boxer rebellion was a failure. Sun Yat-sen led the final revolt against the Qing. Finally in 1912 the Qing dynasty came to an end.
1720 end of ban on western books in Japan 1762-1796 reign of Catherine the great 1773-1775 Pugachev Rebellion 1772-1795 partitioning of Poland 1800-1850 Growth of “Dutch studies” in Japan 1812 failure of Napoleon’s invasion of Russia 1815 Russia reacquires Poland through Treaty of Vienna: Alexander I and the Holy Alliance 1825 Decembrist Revolt Russia 1825-1855 heightening of repression by Tsar Nicholas I 1829-1878 Serbia gains increasing autonomy in Ottoman Empire, then Independence 1830-1831 polish nationalist revolt repressed 1831 Greece wins independence from ottomans 1833-1853 Russian/Ottoman wars 1841-1843 brief shogun reform effort 1853 Perry expedition to Edo Bay 1854 Follow up American and British fleet visit 1854-1856 Crimean War 1856 Romania gains virtual independence 1860-1868 Civil strife in Russia 1860-1870 Alexander II reforms 1861 Russian emancipation of serfs 1865-1879 Russian conquests in central Asia 1867 Mutsuhito emperor of Japan 1867 Russia sells Alaska to United States 1868-1912 Meiji period in Japan 1870 Ministry of industry established in Japan 1870-1940 population growth in Russia 1872 Universal military service established in Russia 1872 Education act Japan 1875-1877 Russian/ Ottoman war Russia wins new territory 1877 Final samurai rising 1870 Ministry of industry established in Japan 1870-1940 population growth in Russia 1872 Universal military service established in Russia 1872 Education act Japan 1875-1877 Russian/ Ottoman war Russia wins new territory 1877 Final samurai rising 1878 Bulgaria gains independence 1881 Anarchist assassination of Alexander II 1881-1905 growing repression and attacks on minorities in Russia 1884-1887 New Russia gains in central Asia 1884-1914 Beginnings of Russian industrialization; near-completion of trans-Siberian railway (full linkage 1916) 1890 new constitution and legal code 1892-1903 Sergei Witte, Minister of finance 1894-1895 Sino Japanese war 1898 Formation of Marxist Social Democratic Party; Russia 1902 loose alliance between Japan and Brittan 1904-1905 Russo- Japanese war; Japan defeats Russia 1905-1906 Russian revolution results in peasant reforms and Duma (parliament) 1910 Japan annexes Korea 1912 Growing party strife in Russian Duma 1912-1918 Balkan Wars 1914 WWI begins 1916-1918 Japan seizes former German holdings in Pacific and China 1917 Russian Revolution leads to Bolshevik victory Timeline of events
-Yukichi Fukuzawa (1834-1904) was an ardenent educational reformer of late 19th century Japan. Stated that Japan needed change. He started traveling to United States and Europe in 1860’s. He did not like the outspokenness of women or divisive debates in parliament. However he thought that the United States and Europe did have better education than Japan. He thought that the problem with Japanese education was Confucianism, which Confucianism undervalued Math and Science. It also lacked the idea of Independence. In the end Fukuzawa did bend but he kept his ideas.
In 1812 Russia was invaded by Napoleon (France) and this led to new concerns about the defenses of the nation. Conservative intellectuals wanted leaned towards renewed isolation. A new tsar rose Alexander I in the end he sponsored the Holy Alliance idea. In this alliance Russia, Prussia, and Austria would combine in defense of religion and the established order.
In 1825 a revolt of western oriented army officers started thus called the Decembrist uprising which led to a new tsar Nicholas I. Russia’s political opponents stiffened and the secret police expanded and newspapers and schools were tightly supervised. Because of the Political Repression’s Russia did not advance with the world in the wave of revolutions
While in 1830, and 1831 uprisings were being put down by Nicholas I Russia continued to pressure the Ottoman Empire. A war in the 1830’s gave Russia some territorial gains while Britain and France tried to help “prop up” the Ottoman Empire.
Russia in the early 19th century started taking advantage of western markets for grain. However instead of improving their techniques to get more grain the land lords just tightened their grip on the serfs. In exchange for low cost grain exports Russia started importing western machinery and luxury goods.
Tsar Nicholas I provoked a conflict with the Ottoman Empire in 1853. This time France and Britain openly opposed Russia. As a result the Crimean Was fought on the Black sea and the western forces won driving the Russian armies back. The reason why Russia lost was because they didn’t have the technology that Russia had. After words tsar Alexander II come into power
In 1861 Russia then emancipated the serfs (about the same time that the United States and some South American nations freed slaves.) With the freedom of the serfs the serfs got most of the land while the aristocrats only got some of the land. The emancipation was designed to retain the tight grip of the tsarist state thus keeping the aristocrats and the serfs in place. The emancipation also brought a larger urban labor force, however is spurred yet another revolution. During all of this the potato was used more widely in Russia and the population grew. Although because of money the serfs had to pay to own the land they were legally free yet at the same time still bound to their land. To help enforce these actions the tsar created zemstvoes which were local political councils.
From the reform era onward literacy increased rapidly in Russian society. New novels were made and imported from other countries and were widely available. Even sexual habits were changed. Sexual activity before marriage increased and fathers absolute control over their children loosened.
In the 1870’s Russia started creating more railroads. Thus the Siberian railroads were created (railroads leading from Russia to the pacific to Europe. This caused Russia to boom in iron and coal sectors and grain exports from the west. In 1860 Russia’s railroads quadrupled.
Intelligentsia – a Russian term for late intellectuals as a class were created. There were also Russian radicals who were anarchists who sought to abolish all forma government. Then because their plans didn’t work out they became some of the earliest terrorists. They used bombings and assassinations to scare the public. However this only strengthened the tsarist regime. Alexander I was assassinated by a bomb in 1881.
In 1890 on of the most active Marxist leaders was Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov or most commonly know as Lenin. Lenin argued that Russia could have a proletarian revolution without going through a distinct middle class phase. Through Lenin a group of Russian Marxist known as Bolsheviks rose or a majority party although through Lenin they were a minority. Because of Lenin’s reforms in 1900 a revolution was inevitable.
In 1904 a war between Russia and Japan broke out. The Russo-Japanese war in the end against everyone’s expectations Japan won. Russia was thrown into chaos. Massive protests were started because of the war. In the end it would create a national parliament the Duma. The interior minister Piotyr Stolypin introduced some new reforms. Under these reforms peasants gained greater freedoms.
Japan transformation without revolution • In the first half of the 19th century Japan experienced little reforms. Under the Tokugawa regime new-Confucianism continued to gain among the ruling elite at the expense of Buddhism. Japan gradually became more secular especially in the upper class. Japanese lifestyles began to change by 1859 more than 40 percent of men were literate and 15 percent of women.
in 1720 the ban on western books was lifted. A group called the Dutch Studies had keep western books alive through all the time when the ban was still in effect. Then Japan realizing that the western nations were more advanced than the Chinese the Japanese started adopting western ideas.