Muhammad and the Growth of Islam Lesson 10-3
The Prophet Muhammad • Born in Mecca on the Arabian peninsula • Raised by relatives after his parents died; became a trader • Had a revelation or vision from Allah (God) telling him he would be his prophet • Islam, (“submitting to God’s will”) a religion based on the revelations given to Muhammad grows • A Muslim, or follower of Islam, believes that the Qur’an is God’s word and Muhammad is his messenger.
The Holy Quran • Muslims believe the Qur’an is the direct word of Allah revealed to Muhammad • The Quran is written and read in Arabic and is about as long as the Christian New Testament.
Mecca and Medina • In 622 Muhammad goes to Medina and sets up the first Muslim community. • Muhammad’s journey to Medina is called theHijrah • 622 is the start of the Muslim calendar • Mecca is a holy city for Muslims all over the world today.
The Five Pillars of Islam • Testimony of FaithThere is no god but God or Allah, and Muhammad is His messenger or prophet. • Daily PrayerPray 5x each day in the direction of the holy city of Mecca. • Charity Give money to the poor. • FastingNo food or drink from dawn until dusk during the holy month of Ramadan - the 9th month of the Muslim calendar. • Pilgrimage Travel to the holy city of Mecca at least once during one’s lifetime.
Hajj • Muslims make a spiritual journey called a pilgrimage (or hajj) to visit the Kaaba in Mecca. • According to the Quran, the Kaaba (black cube) was made by Abraham.
Death of the Prophet • Muhammad died in 632 and rose into heaven from a holy rock where Jews believe Abraham prepared the sacrifice of his son, Isaac in Jerusalem. On this site Muslims built a mosque called the Dome of the Rock. DOME OF THE ROCK, Jerusalem
The Muslim World • Major groups of Muslims: Sunnis and Shi’ites • Most Muslims are Sunnis (85%) • Shi’ites are the majority in Iraq and Iran
Sunnis vs. Shi’ites • Sunnis(85%) • The caliph (Muslim leader) may be elected from the Muslim community. • Shi’ites (Shia) (15%) • The caliph (Muslim leader) must be a descendant of the family of Muhammad • This basic belief has caused many disagreements between the Sunnis and Shi’ites for many years.
A Muslim Mosque • Muslims had a strong interest in art. • A mosque, or Muslim house of worship is considered a work of art. • They are often decorated with geometric designs and verses from the Qur’an.
Muslim Architecture The towers of a mosque are where the call to prayer is heard each day.
Jerusalem – A Holy City • Jews, Christians, and Muslims consider Jerusalem a holy city. • Abrahamic Tradtion • All three groups trace their monotheistic heritage to Abraham. • Jews pray at the Western Wall ; the last remaining wall of the ancient Jewish temple. • Muslims visit the Dome of the Rock (Site of Muhammad’s journey to heaven and sacrifice of Isaac. • Christians visit the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, built on the site where Jesus was crucified and buried. • Today, Jerusalem is the capital of the nation of Israel.
The Ottoman Empire • In 1453 Muslim Turks, the Ottomans, captured Constantinople ending the Byzantine Empire. • The Ottomans then conquered much of the territory held by the Byzantines. • The rule of the Ottoman Empire united much of the Muslim world under one ruler.