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French Revolution

French Revolution

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French Revolution

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  1. French Revolution

  2. Strengthening the Crown • Cardinal Richelieu- advisor to French monarch • Goal: strengthen the monarchy • Louis XIV: inherited throne at 4 yrs. Old • Reign 1643-1715 • “Sun King”, “Most Christian King”, divine right • Palace of Versailles • Revoke Edict of Nantes

  3. Strengthening the Crown • Louis XIV • Appoints Jean Baptiste Colbert as economic advisor • Mercantilism= need for empire • Increase empire= more resources= more wealth • Numerous wars= debt

  4. French Revolution • Economic problems: • War debts • Poor taxation policies • Poor harvests • Lavish lifestyle of monarchy • 1789- Louis XVI summoned Estates General • governing body with members from each estate • Had not met in 175 years (absolutism)

  5. French Revolution • Conflict between the estates at the meeting • June 17, 1789- Third Estate declares themselves the National Assembly • July 14, 1789- storming of Bastille • August, 1789- Declaration of Rights of Man

  6. French Revolution • National Assembly governed France on behalf of the 3rd Estate from 1791-1792 • 1791- new Constitution ratified • Created Constitutional Monarchy; King retains executive power • Austrians and Prussians invade France to restore absolute monarchy • Marie Antionette was sister of Austrian Emperor • Unsuccessful

  7. French Revolution • Continued unrest= another new Constitution • Declares France a republic • Established the National Convention as the new ruling body • Ruled from 1792-1795 • 1793: National Convention (led by radical Jacobins) imprison royal family and behead king and queen

  8. French Revolution • Reign of Terror: • Constitution once again thrown out • Committee of Public Safety created to facilitate the revolution • Led by Maximilien Robespierre and Jacobins • Thousands beheaded • Eventually, Robespierre too was beheaded • 1795: yet another government established, called the Directory

  9. Rise of Napoleon • Directory created strong military • Napoleon Bonaparte popular military man • 24 at the time • 1799: overthrows Directory and declares himself First Consul

  10. Napoleon • Popular ruler • Many domestic reforms • Napoleonic Codes (1804)- implemented some Enlightenment ideas and equality for men • Begins to build a French empire in Europe • Conquers Austria, Prussia, Spain, Portugal, and parts of Italy • 1804- crowns himself emperor

  11. Napoleon • 1810: empire at its height • 1812: attacks Russia= mistake • Conquered areas use this as opportunity to defeat and overthrow Napoleon • Exiled • But, disagreements about how to restore order

  12. Napoleon • 1813- Napoleon returns, tries to regain power • Defeated at Waterloo and permanently exiled to St. Helena, later dies there. • Other nations meet to restore balance of power

  13. Congress of Vienna • 1815: Congress of Vienna • French territory return to pre-Napoleonic borders • Returned rulers of areas conquered by Napoleon • French monarchy restored, but with Constitutional limits

  14. France….Continued • 1830: another republic created, lasts until Revolutions of 1848 • 1852: Louis Napoleon established a second French empire • 1870: Louis-Napoleon overthrown and yet another republic created • How is all that for confusing????? This is just one example of how confusing European politics can be.