School-Wide PBIS:Middle/High Getting Started George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University of Connecticut August 12, 2008 www.pbis.org www.cber.org www.swis.org George.firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE Enhance capacity of school teams to provide the best behavioral supports for all students and maximize academic & social achievement.
MAIN YR 1-2 OUTCOME OBJECTIVES • Leadership team • Staff agreements • Working knowledge of SW-PBS practices & systems • Yr 1 SW-PBS individualized action plan • Proposal, Agreements, Team, Data Today: Content Orientation Tomorrow: Team Action Plan
Getting Started - Today • Foundations (George) • Rationale, Definitions, Features • Practices & Systems (Charlie) • Teaming, agreements, data-decision making • Teaching & encouraging expectations • Discouraging rule violations
“141 Days!” Intermediate/senior high school with 880 students reported over 5,100 office discipline referrals in one academic year. Nearly 2/3 of students have received at least one office discipline referral.
5100 referrals = 51,000 min @10 min = 850 hrs = 141 days @ 6 hrs
“Da place ta be” During 4th period, in-school detention room has so many students that overflow is sent to counselor’s office. Most students have been assigned for being in hallways after the late bell.
“Four corners” Three rival gangs are competing for “four corners.” Teachers actively avoid the area. Because of daily conflicts, vice principal has moved her desk to four corners.
“Smoke Pit” 45 cigarette smoking violations have been reported in past month by security staff & neighbors.
“Where ya supposed to be? During 3rd & 6th block periods, more students are in the hallways & outside the building than in class…& neighbors are complaining!
MS/HS worry about… • Low academic achievement • Antisocial school culture & behavior • Insubordination, dress code, language use, etc • Low attendance, tardies, substance use • Withdrawal, depression, emotional disturbances • Dropping out, substance use, delinquency • Graduation, careers, postsecondary • Social skill deficits
SWIS summary 07-08 July 2, 20082,717 sch, 1,377,989 stds; 1,232,826 Maj ODRs
2 Worrisome & Ineffective Responses to Problem Behavior • Get Tough (practices) • Train-&-Hope (systems)
Worry #1:Getting Tough approach Runyon: “I hate this f____ing school, & you’re a dumbf_____.” Teacher: “That is disrespectful language. I’m sending you to the office so you’ll learn never to say those words again. When you’re ready to take responsibility for your actions & behave like an adult, you can be in my classroom!”
Increasingly “aversive” reactive discipline continuum • Warning • ODR & warning • ODR & in-school suspension • ODR & out-school suspension • Expulsion hearing
Get Tough Philosophy • Increase monitoring for future problem behavior • Clamp down on rule violators • Re-re-re-review rules & sanctions • Extend continuum of aversive consequences • Improve consistency of use of punishments • Establish “bottom line”
Predictable reactive responses When we experience aversive situation, we select interventions that produce immediate relief by • Removing student • Removing ourselves • Modifying physical environment • Assign responsibility for change to student &/or others
System’s response…Get tougher • Zero tolerance policies • Security guards & metal detectors, & surveillance cameras • Student uniforms • Expulsion • Exclusionary options (e.g., alternative programs)
But….false sense of safety & security! • Fosters environments of control • Triggers & reinforces antisocial behavior • Shifts accountability away from school • Devalues child-adult relationship • Weakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming
Assumptions • Adolescents should know better…most do • Adolescent will “get it” & change…many do • Adolescents must take responsibility for own behavior….most know they should & do….appropriately & inappropriately • Punishment teaches right way….not really • Parents will take care of it…many try • Adolescents will learn from natural consequences….most do WHAT ABOUR NON-RESPONDERS?
Science of behavior has taught us that students…. • Are NOT born with “bad behaviors” • Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences ……..Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback
Pay attention to function • “Lantana, you skipped 2 school days, so we’re going to suspend you for 2 more.” • “Phloem, I’m taking your book away because you obviously aren’t ready to learn.” • “You want my attention?! I’ll show you attention,…let’s take a walk down to the office & have a little chat with the Principal.”
So…How should we respond? • Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence (2001) • Coordinated Social Emotional & Learning (Greenberg et al., 2003) • Center for Study & Prevention of Violence (2006) • White House Conference on School Violence (2006) • Positive, predictable school-wide climate • High rates of academic & social success • Formal social skills instruction • Positive active supervision & reinforcement • Positive adult role models • Multi-component, multi-year school-family-community effort
SW-PBS Logic! Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable for all students (Zins & Ponti, 1990)
Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement 4 PBS Elements OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior p. 10-11
Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings p. 16 ~80% of Students
p. 24-32 Team GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started” Agreements Data-based Action Plan Evaluation Implementation
p. 12-14 SWPBS Subsystems School-wide Classroom Family Non-classroom Student
p. 33 A School-wide 1. Common purpose & approach to discipline 2. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors 3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior 4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior 5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior 6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation
p. 69 Non-classroom • Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged • Active supervision by all staff • Scan, move, interact • Precorrections & reminders • Positive reinforcement
p. 78 Classroom • Classroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouraged • Teaching classroom routines & cuestaught & encouraged • Ratio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adult-student interaction • Active supervision • Redirections for minor, infrequent behavior errors • Frequent precorrections for chronic errors • Effective academic instruction & curriculum
Individual Student • Behavioral competence at school & district levels • Function-based behavior support planning • Team- & data-based decision making • Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes • Targeted social skills & self-management instruction • Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations
Family • Continuum of positive behavior support for all families • Frequent, regular positive contacts, communications, & acknowledgements • Formal & active participation & involvement as equal partner • Access to system of integrated school & community resources