School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Getting Started – Team B George Sugai OSEP Center on PBIS Center for Behavioral Education & Research University of Connecticut December 9-10, 2008 www.pbis.org www.cber.org www.swis.org George.firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE Enhance capacity of school teams to provide the best behavioral supports for all students and maximize academic & social achievement.
www.cber.org + library + training materials 5. Appendices 7. Ch 1 – Overview 44. Ch 2 – Getting Started 79. Ch 3 – Nonclassroom Settings 89. Ch 4 – Classroom Settings
2 SWPBS is about….
MAIN OUTCOME OBJECTIVES • Establish leadership team • Establish staff agreements • Build working knowledge of SW-PBS practices & systems • Develop individualized action plan for SW-PBS • Organize for upcoming school year
8 SW-PBS Logic! Successful individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or school climates that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable for all students (Zins & Ponti, 1990)
Context Matters! Examples Individual Student vs. School-wide
“Reiko” Assessments indicate that Reiko performs in average to above average range in most academic areas. However, her teacher has noticed Reiko’s frequent talking & asking & answering questions without raising her hand has become an annoying problem to other students & to teacher. What would you do?
“Kiyoshi” Kiyoshi is a highly competent student, but has long history of antisocial behavior. He is quick to anger, & minor events quickly escalate to major confrontations. He has few friends, & most of his conflicts occur with peers in hallways & cafeteria & on bus. In last 2 months, he has been given 8 days of in school detention & 6 days of out of school suspension. In a recent event, he broke glasses of another student. What would you do?
“Mitch” Mitch displays a number of stereotypic (e.g., light filtering with his fingers, head rolling) & self-injurious behaviors (e.g., face slapping, arm biting), & his communications are limited to a verbal vocabulary of about 25 words. When his usual routines are changed or items are not in their usual places, his rates of stereotypic & self-injurious behavior increase quickly. What would you do?
“Rachel” Rachel dresses in black every day, rarely interacts with teachers or other students, & writes & distributes poems & stories about witchcraft, alien nations, gundams, & other science fiction topics. When approached or confronted by teachers, she pulls hood of her black sweatshirt or coat over her head & walks away. Mystified by Rachel’s behavior, teachers usually shake their heads & let her walk away. Recently, Rachel carefully wrapped a dead squirrel in black cloth & placed it on her desk. Other students became frightened when she began talking to it. What would you do?
Fortunately, we have a science that guides us to… • Assess these situations • Develop behavior intervention plans based on our assessment • Monitor student progress & make enhancements All in ways that can be culturally & contextually appropriate Crone & Horner, 2003
However, context matters…. What factors influence our ability to implement what we know with accuracy, consistency, & durability for students like Rachel, Reiko, Mitch, & Kiyoshi?
“159 Days!” Intermediate/senior high school with 880 students reported over 5,100 office discipline referrals in one academic year. Nearly 2/3 of students have received at least one office discipline referral. Reiko is in this school!
5,100 referrals = 76,500 min @15 min = 1,275 hrs = 159 days @ 8 hrs
“Da place ta be” During 4th period, in-school detention room has so many students that the overflow is sent to the counselor’s office. Most students have been assigned for being in the hallways after the late bell. Kiyoshi is in this school!
“Cliques” During Advisory Class, the “sportsters” sit in the back of the room, & “goths” sit at the front. Most class activities result in out of seat, yelling arguments between the two groups. Mitch is in this classroom!
“Four corners” Three rival gangs are competing for “four corners.” Teachers actively avoid the area. Because of daily conflicts, vice principal has moved her desk to four corners. Rachel is in this school!
“FTD” On 1st day of school, a teacher found “floral” arrangement on his desk. “Welcome to the neighborhood” was written on the card You are in this School!
Questions! • What would behavior support look like if Mitch, Rachel, Kiyoshi, & Reiko were in these classrooms & schools? • Are these environments safe, caring, & effective? Context Matters!
Messages Repeated! • Successful Individual student behavior support is linked to host environments or schools that are effective, efficient, relevant, & durable • Learning & teaching environments must be redesigned to increase the likelihood of behavioral & academic success
2 Worries & Ineffective Responses to Problem Behavior • Get Tough (practices) • Train-&-Hope (systems)
10 Worry #1“Teaching” by Getting Tough Runyon: “I hate this f____ing school, & you’re a dumbf_____.” Teacher: “That is disrespectful language. I’m sending you to the office so you’ll learn never to say those words again….starting now!”
Immediate & seductive solution….”Get Tough!” • Clamp down & increase monitoring • Re-re-re-review rules • Extend continuum & consistency of consequences • Establish “bottom line” ...Predictable individual response
Reactive responses are predictable…. When we experience aversive situation, we want select interventions that produce immediate relief • Remove student • Remove ourselves • Modify physical environment • Assign responsibility for change to student &/or others
When behavior doesn’t improve, we “Get Tougher!” • Zero tolerance policies • Increased surveillance • Increased suspension & expulsion • In-service training by expert • Alternative programming …..Predictable systems response!
12 Erroneous assumption that student… • Is inherently “bad” • Will learn more appropriate behavior through increased use of “aversives” • Will be better tomorrow…….
But….false sense of safety/security! • Fosters environments of control • Triggers & reinforces antisocial behavior • Shifts accountability away from school • Devalues child-adult relationship • Weakens relationship between academic & social behavior programming
Science of behavior has taught us that students…. • Are NOT born with “bad behaviors” • Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive consequences ……..Do learn better ways of behaving by being taught directly & receiving positive feedback
13 VIOLENCE PREVENTION • Surgeon General’s Report on Youth Violence (2001) • Coordinated Social Emotional & Learning (Greenberg et al., 2003) • Center for Study & Prevention of Violence (2006) • White House Conference on School Violence (2006) • Positive, predictable school-wide climate • High rates of academic & social success • Formal social skills instruction • Positive active supervision & reinforcement • Positive adult role models • Multi-component, multi-year school-family-community effort
17 SWPBS Practices School-wide Classroom • Smallest # • Evidence-based • Biggest, durable effect Family Non-classroom Student
18 School-wide • Leadership team • Behavior purpose statement • Set of positive expectations & behaviors • Procedures for teaching SW & classroom-wide expected behavior • Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior • Continuum of procedures for discouraging rule violations • Procedures for on-going data-based monitoring & evaluation
Non-classroom • Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged • Active supervision by all staff • Scan, move, interact • Precorrections & reminders • Positive reinforcement
Classroom • All school-wide • Maximum structure & predictability in routines & environment • Positively stated expectations posted, taught, reviewed, prompted, & supervised. • Maximum engagement through high rates of opportunities to respond, delivery of evidence-based instructional curriculum & practices • Continuum of strategies to acknowledge displays of appropriate behavior, including contingent & specific praise, group contingencies, behavior contracts, token economies • Continuum of strategies for responding to inappropriate behavior, including specific, contingent, brief corrections for academic & social behavior errors, differential reinforcement of other behavior, planned ignoring, response cost, & timeout.
Individual Student • Behavioral competence at school & district levels • Function-based behavior support planning • Team- & data-based decision making • Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes • Targeted social skills & self-management instruction • Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations
Family • Continuum of positive behavior support for all families • Frequent, regular positive contacts, communications, & acknowledgements • Formal & active participation & involvement as equal partner • Access to system of integrated school & community resources
34 Worry #2:“Train & Hope”
Development “Map” • 2+ years of team training • Annual “booster” events • Coaching/facilitation support at school, district, & regional/state levels • Regular self-assessment & evaluation data • Development of local/district leadership teams • Establishment of local specialized behavior competence • Integration with related behavior initiatives