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The Middle Ages

The Middle Ages

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The Middle Ages

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  1. The Middle Ages World History Sr. Mara Rose, O.P.

  2. Break Down Early Middle Ages 500 1000 High Middle Ages 1300 Late Middle Ages 1500

  3. Early Middle Ages • Rise of the Germanic kingdoms • New system of government: Manorialism • Revival of the Eastern Empire • Carolingiandynasty St. Benedict found monastery Franks defeat Muslims at Tours Charlemagne becomes emperor Otto I becomes emperor 570 622 787 Fall of Rome Seljuk Turks 732 525 962 Muslim Calendar begins 1000 500 600 700 800 900 Second Council of Nicea Birth of the prophet Muhammad

  4. High Middle Ages • Rise in Feudalism • New & better farming techniques • First European universities • Communal enterprises in government Begin building Notre Dame Cathedral William, duke of Normandy, conquers England Acre falls to the Muslims Constantinople falls 1095 1187 1215 Early Middle Ages Late Middle Ages 1066 1204 1163 1291 1100 Saladin defeats Crusaders 1300 1000 1150 1200 1250 King John signs Magna Carta Pope Urban II calls for the first crusade

  5. Late Middle Ages • The Black Death/Plague • Rise in Literature and literacy • Threat from the east of the Ottoman Empire • Increase in popular piety and religious ideas Pop-Up Quiz What were the reasons for the fall of Rome? Christianity A series of events Constantine Avignon papacy begins Constantinople falls for the last time Great Schism begins 1347 1417 High Middle Ages Rennaisance 1453 1378 1305 1350 1300 1400 1450 1500 Great Schism Ends Black Death first appears in Italy

  6. Regional Rule, Local Views, 500-750 Chapter 9

  7. Regional Rule, Local Views 500-750 Question of the day: What impact did the disappearance of centralized authority have on the economy in western Europe?

  8. Regional Rule, Local Views 500-750 • Power vacuum: who will fill the void? • Barbarian leaders • Small political units • Independent from former Mediterranean rule • Violent and unstable

  9. Three Civilizations, 800 • What might be the consequences of the diversity among Rome’s successors?

  10. Regional Rule, Local Views 500-750 • Kingship and Rule in Merovingian Gaul • A Father’s Estate • Consequence: Familial Violence • Warrior Chieftains Pop-Up Quiz From your reading: After the Roman emperor Romulus Augustulus was deposed, the a. Emphasis in western Europe was on local rule. b. Gothic tribes formed a political alliance. c. Former provinces of the Roman Empire were run by legion commanders. d. Church stepped in to rule instead of the imperial senate. • The sword hilts pictured here reveal the high quality of Merovingian crafts. The delicate gold leaf on the handle indicates that the king who wielded these weapons used them for display more than for battle.

  11. Regional Rule, Local Views 500-750 • The Iberian and Italian Peninsulas • Visigothic Rule in Iberia • Conversion from Arian to Roman Christianity • Conquest by the Muslims, 718 • Italy and the Lombards • Tensions with the Church and Pope • Frankish Protection of the Pope The conversion of the Visigoths from Arian to Roman Christianity made them more acceptable as rulers to the people of the Iberian Peninsula. What does the fortress-like appearance of this church suggest about the role churches sometimes played in the sixth century?

  12. Regional Rule, Local Views 500-750 • The Decline of Trade • Economic Changes • Decrease in Luxury Goods • Change from Gold to Silver • Heightened Self-Sufficiency • Fewer Markets • The Decline of Cities • Little Safety in Numbers • Cities in the Italian Peninsula • The Survival of Roman Infrastructure Pop-Up Quiz One of the major problems contributing to warfare in Merovingian Gaul was that All branches of the family were entitled to form their own dynasty All property was divided equally among descendants, instigating fights for power They were on the border with the Vandals There was much intermarriage between clans

  13. Regional Rule, Local Views 500-750 • On a piece of paper, using RATS, answer the question of the day: What impact did the disappearance of centralized authority have on the economy in western Europe?

  14. Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East, 500-650 Chapter 8

  15. Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East, 500-650 Question of the Day: In what ways did Emperor Justinian seek to codify Christian belief?

  16. Remember: Three Civilizations, 800 Think Back/Look Back In Chapter 7 on page 209 it discusses the beginning of the Byzantine Empire. Take a minute to look over the text. Then with your neighbor, take 2 minutes to discuss the differences with the West.

  17. Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East, 500-650 • The Ambitions of Justinian I (r. 527-565) • Reconquest • The Campaigns of Belisarius (505-565) • Success in North Africa and the Italian Peninsula • Eastern Threats: Persia and the Slavs • The Costs of Empire • Ceremony • Imperial Dignity • Empress Theodora (497-548) • The Nika Riot, 532

  18. Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East, 500-650 What does this map reveal about the challenges that confronted Byzantium in its attempts to maintain Justinian’s ambitious reconquest and his plans to restore imperial glory? Justinian’s Empire

  19. Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East, 500-650 • The Search for Christian Unity • Authority • The Mystery of the Mass • The Limitations of Laity • Belief • The Debate over the Nature of Christ • The Condemnation of the Monophysites Pop-Up Quiz Which was the most costly of Justinian’s economic expenses? A. Building fortifications to fend off the Slavs B. Maintaining armies against Persia C. Building the Hagia Sophia cathedral D. Retaking Italy Pop-Up Quiz In Justinian's attempts to strengthen the church, in which he considered his power co-equal, he persecuted all of the following exceptthe Monophysites Nicenes Jews Neoplatonics • The asymmetrical eyes of this life-size icon of Jesus Christ are intended to signal Christ’s dual nature.

  20. Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East, 500-650 • The Codification of Roman Law • The Body of Civil Law • Family Law • The Governance of the Patria Potestas • Commerce • The Regulating Power of Contracts

  21. The immense dome of Constantinople’s Hagia Sophia was meant to instill a sense of awe. Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East, 500-650 • Constantinople: The New Rome • The Grandeur of the Hagia Sophia • The Epicenter of Commerce • Bazaars • The Ravages of Bubonic Plague

  22. The Hagia Sophia Justinian’s Hagia Sophia dominated the urban landscape of sixth-century Constantinople and still stands out in the skyline of modern Istanbul.

  23. Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East, 500-650 • The Empire after Justinian • New Pressures • Lombards in the West • Avars in the East • Heraclius (r. 610-641) • Reforms and Stabilization • Victory against the Persians

  24. Justinian and the Revival of the Empire in the East, 500-650 • On a piece of paper, using RATS, answer the question of the day: In what ways did Emperor Justinian seek to codify Christian belief?

  25. The Western Church, 500-800 Chapter 9

  26. Question of the Day: How did bishops and monasteries help to preserve social order and literacy after the end of the empire in the West?

  27. The Western Church, 500-800 • The Christianization of Northern Europe • Mission to Britain • Pope Gregory I (r. 590-604) and Augustine of Canterbury (d. 604) • Aethelbert (r. ca. 593-631) and Bertha of Kent • Synod of Whitby, 664 • Irish Monks • Columba (521-597) • Columbanus (543-615) • Boniface (ca. 672-754) Pope Gregory I sent missionaries to convert the peoples of northern Europe and the British Isles. He also wrote theological works that led to his inclusion among the Church Fathers.

  28. The Western Church, 500-800 • The Bishops • Regional Consultation • Administration: Bishopric/Diocese, Parish, Cathedral • Masses, Tithes, and Dogma • Secular Cooperation • The Bishop of Rome • A Prestigious Office: the Papacy and Papal States • Far-Reaching Claims • The Donation of Constantine

  29. The Western Church, 500-800 • Monasticism and Learning • A Way of Life and Prayer • Benedict of Nursia(ca. 480-543) • Rules, the DivineOffice, and Cloister • Intellectual Work • Scribes and Illumination • Bede (ca. 673-735) • Religious Women • Monks spent part of their day walking in silent contemplation around the cloister with their prayer books. In all honesty they did more than that!

  30. The Western Church, 500-800 • On a piece of paper, using RATS, answer the question of the day: How did bishops and monasteries help to preserve social order and literacy after the end of the empire in the West?

  31. The Rise of Islam, 600-700 & The Expansion of Islam, 700-800 Chapter 9

  32. The Rise & Expansion of Islam Question of the Day: How did the spread of Islam in the eighth century change the religious and political landscape of the Mediterranean?

  33. The Rise of Islam, 600-700 • The Setting: the Arabian Peninsula • Trade and the Caravans • The Coastal Plain and the Towns • Mecca and the Importance of the Kaaba • The Domination of the Quraysh Tribe

  34. The Rise of Islam, 600-700 • The Life of Muhammad (570-632) • Conversion • The Recitations (Sura; the Basis for the Quran) • The Spread of Muhammad’s Message • Hostility in Mecca and Invitation to Medina • TheHejira, 622 • Muhammad’s Leadership and Death • During pre-Islamic times the Kaaba in Mecca served as an important destination for religious pilgrims.

  35. The Rise of Islam, 600-700 • Religious Beliefs • Submission and Obedience to God’s Will • The Five Pillars of Islam • One God—Allah • Prayer • Fasting During Ramadan • Charity • The Hajj, Pilgrimage to Mecca

  36. The Rise of Islam, 600-700 • Christians and Jews: People of the Book • Contrasts in Ideas and Practices of Authority • Treatment of the Dhimmi • Muslim Families • The Practice of Polygamy • Privacy, Protection, and Restrictions for Women • The Harem, Seclusion, and Veiling • Opportunities: Property Management and Moral Authority

  37. The Expansion of Islam, 700-800 • The First Caliphs and Territorial Expansion • The Umayyad Dynasty • The Schism between Shi’ites and Sunnis • The New Capital in Damascus, 661 • Conquest of Persia and Byzantine Lands • Under the leadership of the caliphs, Islam spread dramatically in the first one hundred years after the death of Muhammad.

  38. The Expansion of Islam, 700-800 • Conquest in the West • The Conversion of the Berbers • Tariq ibnZiyad (d. 720) and the Conquest of Gibralter • Settlement in Africa and Iberia • Defeat by the Franks at Tours, 732 • The Abbasid Dynasty and the New Capital at Baghdad • The Creation of the Caliphate at Cordoba

  39. The Expansion of Islam, 700-800 • Islamic Civilization • The Influence of Older Cultures and Traditions • Art and Literature • The Poetry of Abu Nuwas(ca. 747-813) • Commerce and Urban Life • The Promotion of Trade • Cultural Unification and the Arabic Language • Islamic art and architecture, as depicted in this mosque in Cordoba, Spain, retained their distinctive features throughout the Muslim world.

  40. The Expansion of Islam, 700-800 • On a piece of paper, using RATS, answer the question of the day: How did the spread of Islam in the eighth century change the religious and political landscape of the Mediterranean?

  41. Charlemagne and the Revival of Empire in the West, 700-900 Chapter 9

  42. Charlemagne and the Revival of Empire in the West, 700-900 Question of the Day:

  43. Charlemagne and the Revival of Empire in the West, 700-900 • From Mayor (Major Domo) to King • The Carolingians • Charles Martel (686-741), “the Hammer” • Tours, 732 • Pepin (r. 714-768) • Acting Like a King • From King to Emperor • Charlemagne (r. 768-814) • Reviving the Title of Emperor, 800 • What might the difference in the size of Charlemagne and his wife signify besides relative height?

  44. Europe and the Mediterranean, ca. 800 Does the Frankish kingdom seem integrated into the old Mediterranean world or isolated from it?

  45. Charlemagne and the Revival of Empire in the West, 700-900 • Imperial Rule • Ministerial Kingship • Counts,MissiDominici, and Cartularies • A New Capital: Aachen • A Cultural Revival • Alcuin of York (ca. 732-804) • Liturgy • Seven Liberal Arts • The Partition of Empire • Louis the Pious • Treaty of Verdun, 843 • Charlemagne spent nearly his entire reign on military campaign. Late in life, he settled in his capital at Aachen in northern Germany. This bronze statue of Charlemagne on horseback shows him wearing a crown and holding an orb.

  46. Charlemagne and the Revival of Empire in the West, 700-900 • On a piece of paper, using RATS, answer the question of the day:

  47. Middle Byzantine Period, 600-1071 Chapter 8

  48. Middle Byzantine Period, 600-1071 Questions of the Day: • What concerns did Byzantine emperors have about the use of icons in religious worship? • What factors contributed to the growing divide between the two halves of the old Roman Empire?