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English Grammar

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  1. English Grammar • Noun: names a person, place, thing, idea • Pronoun: replaces a noun • Verb: expresses action or being • Adjective: describes a noun or pronoun

  2. English Grammar • Adverb: describes a verb, adjective, or adverb • Preposition: relates a noun/pronoun to another word • Conjunction: Ties words together • Interjection: Expresses strong emotion

  3. Their, They’re & There • There: is a place • reach over there • Their: shows ownership • strips from their fabric • They’re: short for they are • They’re too short

  4. Then or Than? • Then: refers to a certain time • Ask the question “when?” • Than: used in comparisons • Connect “a” in “than” with “a” in “compare”

  5. Too or Two or To • Too: means also or excessively • Connect the extra “o” in too with the “o” in also or the “o” in long • Two: means 2 • To: use when you do not mean also or excessively or the number 2

  6. Avoid Excessive Contractions • Don’t, here’s, it’s, wouldn’t, that’s…. • Create a friendly informal tone • Reflect informal speech or writing • Add unnecessary complexity for non-native readers

  7. When to use Abbreviations • Titles, Countries, States, Mathematical units • Bad form to abbreviate words simply to save space, time or energy • Carbs, thru, nite…. • Real abbreviations should be spelled out once • BLS, do this “Basic Life Saving (BLS)”

  8. When to Spell out Numbers • Numbers smaller than ten should be spelled out • If the number is starting the sentence • Fourscore and seven…/ not 4 score and 7 • If numbers are next to each other • “7 13-year-olds” try “seven 13-year-olds

  9. Avoid Double Negatives • Two negatives make a positive • “cannot help but” • “can’t hardly count” • “hadn’t but” • Using in speech and writing conveys the wrong message

  10. How to Use Colons • Used in business letters, lists, and quotations • Dear Mr. Ganglia: • …few things: a horse, an army, a suit of armor • The words before the colon should form a complete thought • Parker explained: “The media has been…..”

  11. A note on Quotations • Short quotations up to 3 lines can be placed into text • Longer quotations double indent and single space the quoted materials • Introduce with a colon • Do not use quotations marks

  12. Avoid Incomplete Comparisons • Octavia screamed more chillingly • Lulu loved sky-diving more than Lola

  13. Avoid Sentence Fragments • Do not start sentences with and, or, but, and nor • Be sure your sentence is a complete thought

  14. Use a consistent voice • Active Voice: Subject acts upon the verb • The man has eaten five hamburgers • Passive Voice: Subject is being acted upon • Five hamburgers must have been eaten by the man

  15. Thesis Statement • Argumentative: • make a claim about topic, justify with specific evidence • Opinion, interpretation • Goal- convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided • Answer to the question your paper explores

  16. Thesis Statement • Specific, cover what you will cover in paper • Supported with evidence • Placed at the end of the first paragraph • Re-check your thesis statement as you write

  17. Generate your Thesis • First turn the writing prompt into the question you want answered • Next compose one or two complete sentences answering that question

  18. Example Thesis • There are some negative and positive aspects to the Banana Herb Tea Supplement • As a result of the Banana Herb Tea Supplement promoting rapid weight loss that results in the loss of muscle and lean body mass, it poses a potential danger to customers

  19. Example Thesis • World hunger has many causes and effects • Hunger persists in Glandelinia because jobs are scarce and farming in the infertile soil is rarely profitable.

  20. Whisper is a site for all ages that have a strong presence of cyberbullying • Online bullying is everywhere especially on social media websites • A social media website that gives the opportunity to allow young teens to bully other teens • should not be allowed

  21. Young adults have access to all sorts of social media just by the tap of their finger thanks to their iPhones and Androids. It is up to them how they choose to use social networks, especially when it comes to what they post • The site that has the strongest presence of cyberbullying would have to be Whisper

  22. In todaysgeneration,cyberbullying has become easier and easier for cowards to hide behind a screen name on social-media websites and say what they cannot in person • Todays social media sites have a definite impact on modern generations and future generations. Social media sites like Facebook, Twitter,  Instagram, Tumblr and, Whisper are some of the most popular apps or sites today