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English/Grammar

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  1. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Notes: 4 types of sentences: simple compound complex compound/complex

  2. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Notes: 4 types of sentences: simple = 1 independent clause compound – complex – compound/complex –

  3. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Notes: 4 types of sentences: simple – 1 independent clause compound = 2 or more independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS ) or a semicolon complex – compound/complex –

  4. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Notes: 4 types of sentences: simple – 1 independent clause compound – 2 or more independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS ) or a semicolon complex = 1 ind. cl + 1 or more dependent cl. compound/complex –

  5. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Notes: 4 types of sentences: simple – 1 independent clause compound – 2 or more independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS ) or a semicolon. complex – 1 ind. cl and 1 or more dependent cl. compound/complex = 2 or more ind cl. + 1 or more dep cl.

  6. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Highlight key words: simple – 1 independent clause compound – 2 or more independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS ) or a semicolon. complex – 1 ind.cl and 1 or more dependent cl. compound/complex– 2 or more indcl. and 1 or more depcl.

  7. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Highlight key words: simple – 1 independentclause compound – 2 or more independentclauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS ) or a semicolon. complex – 1 ind.cl and 1 or more dependentcl. compound/complex – 2 or more indcl. and 1 or more depcl.

  8. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Highlight key words: simple – 1 independentclause compound – 2 or more independentclauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) or a semicolon. complex – 1 ind.cl and 1 or more dependentcl. compound/complex – 2 or more indcl. and 1 or more depcl.

  9. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Looking at those definitions, what does every single type of sentence have in common?

  10. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ simple – 1 independent clause compound – 2 or more independent clausesjoined by a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS ) or a semicolon. complex – 1 ind. cl + 1 or more dependent cl. compound/complex– 2 or more ind cl. + 1 or more dep cl.

  11. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________

  12. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ They all have at least one independent clause. Every sentence must have at least one independent clause. If it does not have at least one independent clause, it is a not a sentence.

  13. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Notes: phrase/clause A phrase is a group of words that does not have a subject/verb combo. A clause is a group of words that does have a subject/verb combo

  14. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ A phrase is a group of words that does not have a subject/verb combo: in the mosh pit; behind the stage The “pit” and the “stage” are not doing anything-there is no verb. You could not just open a conversation with one of these.

  15. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ The most common phrase is a prepositional phrase. The easy test is to use this sentence: The drumstick flew _____ the crowd. Almost every preposition will fit in the blank and will begin the prepositional phrase. Try it.

  16. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ • above • across • after • at • before • behind • below • beside • in • into • inside • near • through • toward • under • within Common Prepositions The drumstick flew _____ the crowd.

  17. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ 2 types of clauses: independent: dependent:

  18. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: This Santa Claus can deliver toys alone. He is independent.__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ 2 types of clauses: independent: can stand alone; makes sense by itself dependent:

  19. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: This Santa Claus can deliver toys alone. He is independent._____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ This Santa Claus is dependent on the sleigh to help him deliver the toys. _____________________________ 2 types of clauses: independent: can stand alone; makes sense by itself dependent: cannot stand alone; needs an independent cl. to make sense

  20. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Examples: Chris had many friends. Does it have a subj/verb combo? Can it stand alone?

  21. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Examples: Chris had many friends. Does it have a subj/verb combo? Can it stand alone?

  22. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Examples: Chrishad many friends. Does it have a subj/verb combo? Yes Can it stand alone?

  23. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Examples: Chrishad many friends. Does it have a subj/verb combo? Yes Can it stand alone? Yes

  24. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Examples: Chris had many friends. This is 1 ind cl, which is what kind of sentence? (Look back at your notes)

  25. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Let’s do another. As he was sitting on the couch, I learned about my father’s time in high school. Identify subjects and verbs first.

  26. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Let’s do another. As hewas sitting on the couch, I learned about my father’s time in high school. Identify subjects and verbs first.

  27. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Let’s do another. As hewas sitting on the couch, Ilearned about my father’s time in high school. Identify subjects and verbs first.

  28. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ What is the definition of a clause? As hewas sitting on the couch, Ilearned about my father’s time in high school. In this sentence, I have 2 sets of subj/verb combinations, so how many clauses? What are they?

  29. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Now I have to decide if they are ind or dep clauses. As hewas sitting on the couch, Ilearned about my father’s time in high school. Can this part stand alone? Does it depend on more to make sense?

  30. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ As hewas sitting on the couch, Ilearned about my father’s time in high school. If you were sharing in class about your essay and raised your hand and said, “As he was sitting on the couch,” people would think you were very strange.

  31. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ As hewas sitting on the couch, Ilearned about my father’s time in high school. This clause cannot stand alone. It is dependent on another clause to make sense.

  32. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Now go back to the sentence. As hewas sitting on the couch, Ilearned about my father’s time in high school. Can this part stand alone? Does it depend on more to make sense?

  33. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ As hewas sitting on the couch, Ilearned about my father’s time in high school. If you were sharing in class about your essay and raised your hand and said, “I learned about my father’s time in high school,” that would fit the conversation.

  34. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ As hewas sitting on the couch, Ilearned about my father’s time in high school. This clause can stand alone. It is independent.

  35. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ As he was sitting on the couch, I learned about my father’s time in high school. So this sentence has 1 ind cl and 1 dep cl. What kind of sentence is it? Look at your notes on the first page.

  36. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ As he was sitting on the couch, I learned about my father’s time in high school. So this sentence has 1 ind cl and 1 dep cl. What kind of sentence is it? A complex sentence has 1 ind cl and 1 or more dep cl.

  37. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ What’s next? We need to know what coordinating conjunctions are. simple – 1 independent clause compound – 2 or more independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS ) or a semicolon. complex – 1 ind. cl and 1 or more dependent cl. compound/complex – 2 or more ind cl. and 1 or more dep cl.

  38. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________

  39. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Conjunctions connect two or more of the same type of structure. tit for tat (2 nouns) run and jump and swim (3 verbs) he nor she (2 pronouns) in the back but behind the chair (2 prep. phrases) me or you or him or her (4 pronouns) She did yet he did not. (2 ind cl) The band practices every week so come by sometime. (2 ind cl)

  40. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Conjunctions will not connect (coordinate) things that are not equal. The boy {noun} and jump {verb}were happy. We walked to the store {ind cl} yet when it rained {dep cl}.

  41. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Conjunctions will not connect (coordinate) things that are not equal. The boy {noun} and jump {verb}were happy. We walked to the store {ind cl} yet when it rained {dep cl}.

  42. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Coordinating conjunctions connect things that are equal. The boy {noun} and girl {noun}were happy. We walked to the store {ind cl} yet we got soaked in the rain. {ind cl}.

  43. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ An easy way to remember them: For And Nor But Or Yet So

  44. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Try this one. They did not play sports, but they loved to go to all the high school football games to cheer on the BULLDOGS! First identify subj/verb combos.

  45. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Try this one. Theydid not play sports, but they loved to go to all the high school football games to cheer on the BULLDOGS! First identify subj/verb combos. How many?

  46. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Try this one. Theydid not play sports, but theyloved to go to all the high school football games to cheer on the BULLDOGS! First identify subj/verb combos. How many?

  47. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ There are 2 clauses: 1. Theydid not play sports, 2. but theyloved to go to all the high school football games to cheer on the BULLDOGS! What is “but”?

  48. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ For And Nor But Or Yet So

  49. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ There are 2 clauses: 1. Theydid not play sports, 2. but theyloved to go to all the high school football games to cheer on the BULLDOGS! It is a cc (coordinating conjunction), and you do not count it when deciding if it is a dep or ind clause.

  50. English/Grammar EEQ: How can knowing sentence structure improve my writing? Questions: __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ 1. Theydid not play sports, 2. buttheyloved to go to all the high school football games to cheer on the BULLDOGS! Could you say either or both of those clauses alone and not look like an idiot?