Section 1 Focus Question: • What caused the upsurge of westward migration after the War of 1812? Big Picture: • 1840 1/3 people lived between Appalachians & Miss. River • High expectations: more land & crops, removal of Indians, & boom in ag. prices after War of 1812.
“Go WEST” • What was considered the “west”? • East of the Mississippi River • 1790: 4 million • 1840: 1/3 or 17 million • Migrating in groups by railways or canal
Conestoga Covered Wagons Conestoga Trail, 1820s
First Turnpike- 1790 Lancaster, PA By 1832, nearly 2400 mi. of road connected most major cities.
Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin, 1791 Actually invented by a slave!
What about the natives? • Five Civilized Tribes • Cherokees, Choctaws, Creeks, Chickasaws, & Seminoles • Practiced Christianity, farming, use of slavery, dress “white”, and had their own language “Sequoyah”. • Claimed their status as a separate nation from the U.S.
What about the natives? • Indian Removal Act • Prior: treaties gave NA money for lands. • 5CT: Most lived in GA—gold found and land needed for cotton • 1830: Jackson requested $500,000 from Congress to remove 5CT • 1831—Cherokee Nation (Worchester) v GA: • Cherokee’s petitioned for independent nation • Marshall ruled in favor of NA • Jackson “(Marshall) made his decision, now enforce it”
What about the Natives? • 1838—Trail of Tears • 16,000 Cherokees were forced to the new Indian Territory of Oklahoma • 1/3 of the Cherokee Nation died • 116 day march in the snow
Jackson’s Reasoning • Read the quotes from Jackson on the following slides and list the reasons he gives for wanting to move the tribes • Then determine whether your group thinks he is a friend or enemy of the Natives? A frenemy?
Jackson’s Reasons #1 • My original convictions upon this subject have been confirmed by the course of events for several years, and experience is every day adding to their strength. That those tribes can not exist surrounded by our settlements and in continual contact with our citizens is certain. They have neither the intelligence, the industry, the moral habits, nor the desire of improvement which are essential to any favorable change in their condition. Established in the midst of another and a superior race, and without appreciating the causes of their inferiority or seeking to control them, they must necessarily yield to the force of circumstances and ere long disappear.
Jackson’s Reason #2 • Our conduct toward these people is deeply interesting to our national character. Their present condition, contrasted with what they once were, makes a most powerful appeal to our sympathies. Our ancestors found them the uncontrolled possessors of these vast regions…Surrounded by the whites with their arts of civilization, which by destroying the resources of the savage doom him to weakness and decay, the fate of the Mohegan, the Narragansett, and the Delaware is fast overtaking the Choctaw, the Cherokee, and the Creek. That this fate surely awaits them if they remain within the limits of the states does not admit of a doubt. Humanity and national honor demand that every effort should be made to avert so great a calamity.
Jackson Reason #3 • Toward the aborigines of the country no one can indulge a more friendly feeling than myself, or would go further in attempting to reclaim them from their wandering habits and make them a happy, prosperous people.
Section 2 Focus Question: • How did the rise of the market economy affect where Americans lived and how they made their living? Big Picture: • Families grew enough food for families • More demand for cash crops (to sell) • Farmers borrowed money = debt
Speculators & squatters • The Land Ordinance of 1785 divided the land into 640 acres—too much for regular farmers to buy without a loan • Speculators were rich and bought up lands, divided, and sold at high rates. • Squatters illegally settled on western lands. • Why? Landowners lived in other states and never checked their land.
Robert Fulton & the Steamboat 1807: The Clermont
Erie Canal, 1820s Begun in 1817; completed in 1825
The transportation revolution • New Trading Centers: Pittsburgh, St. Louis, Cincinnati • More people living in western economic centers versus port cities
The “Iron Horse” Wins! (1830) 1830 13 miles of track built by Baltimore & Ohio RRBy 1850 9000 mi. of RR track [1860 31,000 mi.]
TheRailroadRevolution,1850s • Immigrant laborbuilt the No. RRs. • Slave laborbuilt the So. RRs.
Section 3 Focus Question: • What caused the rise of industrialization? Big Picture: • Industrial Revolution started in GB • New England invests in factories b/c of bad farming. • Rich southerners bought slaves & land
Causes of the industrial revolution • Embargo Act of 1807—encouraged manufacturing in NE • Water routes—Erie Canal connected to the West • Transportation—steamboats, canals, & railroads • City tensions—men moved West, left large quantities of women in NE • 1811—Francis Cabot Lowell invented textile machines in US
Once Upon a time…Life was A Drag • Where did people get their goods? • What did they do for a living? • Where did they live? • What did they do for fun?
Then Came the Industrial Revolution… • The Industrial Revolution • Began in the 1700s and brought great change to agriculture, transportation, and manufacturing • The changeover from power being provided by horses and humans to being provided by water and steam engines • MORE MACHINES, LESS SWEAT I R
Beginnings of the Revolution • Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the textile (cloth-making) industry • Previous to Industrial Revolution it took almost two weeks to produce a pound of cotton thread
Beginnings of the revolution • 1764 Richard Arkwright invented the water frame-powered by water • To house machines textile mills put on banks of rivers • Created the factory system What might be good or bad about the new factory system?
BAD The Factory System GOOD Factory system brings workers and machinery together in one place Faster paced=more productive Capitalists (people who invest money) made profit Had to work specific hours (not at home) Had to keep up with machines’ fast pace
Steam Power • First brought to textile industry by Arkwright • More reliable than water • No longer had to build factory next to water • Even faster pace • Britain tried to guard the secret of their success
Steam Power Comes to the U.S. • Samuel Slater was an apprentice of Arkwright in Britain • Knowing Arkwright’s machines were worth a fortune, he memorized the plans for them then immigrated to the U.S.
Steam Power Comes to the U.S. • In U.S. joined up with a wealthy merchant • Created first steam run textile mill in the U.S. • This started the Industrial Revolution in the U.S.
Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin, 1791 Actually invented by a slave!