medieval 800 1400 n.
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Medieval 800-1400

Medieval 800-1400

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Medieval 800-1400

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  1. Medieval800-1400

  2. Medieval period • Art during this period was focused on Christian faith. • Art during this period appealed to the emotions and stressed on the importance of faith. • Churches were the center of everything and led to the development of several important architectural styles: • Byzantine • Romanesque • Gothic

  3. Byzantine: refers to the Eastern Christian or Roman Empire, ruled by Constantine • Romanesque: refers to “Roman like” • Gothic: refers to a way to describe the art, culture of the time.

  4. Influences • Almost everything seemed to revolve around religion • Emperors supported the restoration of religious images and refurbishing of churches • This strong movement reinforced the spread of renewed religious faith

  5. Architecture • Byzantium: • Centered on a domed central plan • Small and vertical • Domed structure rising above a square base • Exterior surfaces were decorated with elaborate, rich pattern (probably influenced by earlier Islamic architecture)

  6. Hagia Sophia, Istanbul Turkey

  7. Romanesque: • Were made with brick and stone with roofs of stone • The rectangular cross floor plan was based on roman basilica • The style grew and became popular for; • Buttresses • Galleries • Clerestory windows • Barrel vaults • Groin vaults • A characteristic of Romanesque architecture is the use of arches over doors and windows

  8. Romanesque floor plan

  9. Gothic • Gothic architecture reflected the desire of the church leaders to emphasize the idea of seeking salvation form the God above. • Pointed arches • Windows; Gothic builders used many stained glass windows • Flying buttresses

  10. Cathedral of Notre Dame

  11. The Renaissance

  12. The Renaissance • 1400-1600 • Europe strongly influenced by religious views of the world. • Architecture: grandeur, stained glass windows emerged. • Sculptures containing Bible stories were created • Known as the “rebirth” period, because of classical ideas and freedom of thought

  13. Growth of independent city-states • Better economy • Families, power seekers and wealthy individuals were main patrons to the arts • Patronage: Support, encouragement and financial assistant for the creation of artistic works.

  14. Architectural Influences • Classicism- The art and architectural styles of ancient Greece and Rome. • Domed buildings • Cathedral of Florence Was the first large domed Structure to be built since Ancient Rome.

  15. Built on innovative architectural techniques of Ancient Greece and Rome: • Arch: a structure with a curved, pointed or squared upper edge to an opening that supports the weight above it. • Vault: in architecture, an arched roof or covering of masonry construction. • Dome: in architecture, a hemispherical ceiling over a circular opening

  16. Atrium style housing

  17. Influences • Humanism was the major influence for the renaissance. • Humanism embraces the concept of reviving the human values of classical antiquity that provide a path for living in the world with a human focus. • Humanism was the basis for intellectual and scholarly growth.

  18. Realism: A 19th century art movement in which artist focused on ordinary people, such as peasants and laborers. Realists depicted real scenes from the contemporary life, from city street scenes to the country. They tried to show

  19. Artist • Abundant with artist • The artist of the renaissance were well versed in several mediums. • “Renaissance man” (or woman)-describes someone who has broad and diverse talents and skills. • Fresco: A method of mural painting (commonly used during the Renaissance) in which pigments are applied to a thin layer of wet plaster so that they will be absorbed.

  20. Leonardo da Vinci • Moved to Milan in 1482 to paint • Sculptures, courtly paintings and portraits • Duke Ludovico Sforza commissioned him to build weapons, machinery and buildings. • Wealthy patron Giuliano de Medici. • The last supper

  21. A fresco painted by Leonardo da Vinci depicting Jesus and his disciples at the moment Jesus announces that one of them has betrayed him. • Restoration of the deteriorating fresco has caused great controversy. Some art critics claim that the colors are now “too bright” and that Leonardo's original work has been mutilated. The restoration has been open to the public on a limited basis since 1999.

  22. Mona LisaMedium Oil on wood panelSize 77 x 53 cmLocationMusée du Louvre • The Mona Lisa is a famous 16th-century portrait by Leonardo da Vinci. The Mona Lisa's mysterious smile has beguiled generations of viewers, but the true identity of the woman pictured in the portrait remains unknown, despite intensive research by art historians. Many believe the Mona Lisa to be a portrait of Lisa GherardiniGiocondo, the wife of a wealthy Florentine merchant, Francesco del Giocondo.

  23. Others have suggested the subject was a mistress of da Vinci, or even a self-portrait, with da Vinci imagining himself as a woman. • It is known that Leonardo began the portrait in Florence in 1503, continued work on it through 1506, and then kept the painting until his death in 1519. • Over the next three centuries the Mona Lisa passed through many hands, even hanging for a time in the bedroom of Napoleon, but since 1804 its home has been the Louvre Museum in Paris. • Leonardo's painting is famous among artists for its innovative techniques, including sfumato (shown in the painting's distinctive hazy, soft-focus effect) and chiaroscuro (use of light and shadow). • The Mona Lisa was stolen from the Louvre in 1911, but recovered in Italy in 1913

  24. Secret to Mona Lisa’s Smile •

  25. Madonna of the rocks

  26. Michelangelo • Worked under painter Domenico as apprentice. • Built on the innovative architectural techniques of Ancient Greece and Rome • Considers himself: • Sculptor • Painter • architect • Studied human anatomy

  27. Built on innovative architectural techniques of Ancient Greece and Rome: • Arch: a structure with a curved, pointed or squared upper edge to an opening that supports the weight above it. • Vault: in architecture, an arched roof or covering of masonry construction. • Dome: in architecture, a hemispherical ceiling over a circular opening

  28. The Creation of Adam, painted by Michelangelo, on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel

  29. The famous Sistine ceiling is divided into nine sections in which nine stories of Genesis - from the stages of Creation to the Drunkenness of Noah - are depicted. The scenes begin from the altar wall and proceed toward the entrance; Michelangelo painted them in reverse order since he started from the area near the entrance wall. The twisting ignudi or male nudes that decorate the corners of the ceiling were highly controversial at the time. In total, Michelangelo's work on the Sistine Chapel includes: • 9 scenes from Genesis • 4 corner pendentives • 4 pairs of bronze nudes above the pendentives • 8 triangular spandrels with pairs of bronze nudes • 7 prophets (4 major: Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel; and 3 minor: Zechariah, Joel and Jonah) • 5 sybils • 20 ignudi • 10 medallions

  30. Video Sistine Chapel • Sistine Chapel Video

  31. The focal point of the episode of the Creation of man is the contact between the fingers of the Creator and those of Adam, through which the breath of life is transmitted. God, supported by angels in flight and wrapped in a mantle, leans towards Adam, shown as a resting athlete, whose beauty seems to confirm the words of the Old Testament, according to which man was created to the image and likeness of God.

  32. The Sistine Chapel

  33. David • By: Michelangelo • The Statue of David is perhaps one of the most famous sculptures in the world. It is a Renaissance masterpiece sculpted by Micheangelo from 1501 to 1504. It is considered as one of the greatest works of the famous Renaissance artist along with his other sculpture, the Pieta.

  34. The statue was first started on at around 1464 and Michelangelo was awarded the commission sometime in the 1500’s. By this time, the previous artists were able to form the legs, feet and the figure from the huge block of statue. Michelangelo started working on it in 1501 and was able to finish it in a span of three years. • Michelangelo’s David was created following the style of the artistic discipline called disegno which tries to mimic divine creation. Its positioning is based on the contrappostostyle of human pose depicted as a human form standing with most of its weight on one foot giving the figure a more dynamic appearance. With this style, Michelangelo was able to create a statue that became widely known as a symbol of strength and youthful human beauty.

  35. Pieta By Michaelgelo • In 1498, came Michelangelo's first important commission: the Pietà now in St. Peter's Basilica. The term pietà refers to a type of image in which Mary supports the dead Christ across her knees; Michelangelo's version is today the most famous one. In the Pietà the effects of hard polished marble and of curved yielding flesh coexist. Over life size, the Pietà has mutually reinforcing contrasts: vertical and horizontal, cloth and skin, allude to the living and the dead, female and male, but the unity of the pyramidal composition is strongly imposed.

  36. Raphael • Studied the works of Da Vinci and Michelangelo. • Apprenticed with Pietro Perugino • Developed his own distinct style • Series of Madonna paintings is what he is best known for.

  37. The small cowpermadonna

  38. Alba Madonna

  39. School of Athens, fresco by Raphael, 1508–11; in the Stanza dellaSegnatura, the Vatican, Rome. • Commentators have suggested that nearly every great Greek philosopher can be found within the painting, but determining which are depicted is difficult, since Raphael made no designations outside possible likenesses, and no contemporary documents explain the painting.

  40. The School of Athens was painted by Raphael Sanzio or RaffaelloSanti (1483-1520) for Pope Julius II (1503-1513).  In this fresco, Raphael depicts the great philosophers and mathematicians of ancient Greece as colleagues in a timeless academy: Plato is in the center pointing his finger to the heavens while holding the Timaeus, his treatise on the origin of the world. Next to him, his younger pupil Aristotle holds a copy of his Ethics while describing the earth and the wide realm of moral teaching with his extended hand in an elegant horizontal gesture, Pythagoras contemplates his system of proportions at the lower left and Euclid draws a circle on a slate at the lower right.

  41. To the Greeks mathematics was essentially geometry, and it was in Elements, Euclid's treatise on the subject, that the notion of an axiomatic system was first laid out In this system certain self-evident statements called axioms are assumed to be true and new statements called theorems are derived from them using the Aristotelian rules of inference. • The Fresco of Raphael's School of Athens is a masterpiece of Art. However, over the centuries it has posed many problems to know all details of the persons who are depicted. Unfortunately Raphael did not leave any personal notes on this work but some of the persons can be identified.