Chapter 13 Conflict and Negotiation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 13 Conflict and Negotiation
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Chapter 13 Conflict and Negotiation

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  1. Chapter 13 Conflict and Negotiation 13- 1

  2. Objectives • Describe behaviors that characterize group conflict • Identify common sources of conflict • Explain the five conflict-handling modes • Understand the functional and dysfunctional nature of conflict 13- 2

  3. …Objectives • Differentiate between distributive and integrative bargaining • Explain principled negotiation • Describe how culture influences conflict 13- 3

  4. Characteristics Of Conflict Stereotyping Overvaluation of one’s own group Devaluation of the other group Polarization on issues Distortion of perceptions Escalation 13- 4

  5. Common Sources Of Conflict • We-they attitudes of reference groups • Competition for scarce resources • Ambiguous authority • Interdependence 13- 5

  6. …Common Sources Of Conflict • Deficient information • Differences in values, interests, personalities • Differences in education, culture, perceptions • Different goals and expectations 13- 6

  7. Conflict Dysfunctional Aspects • Reduced productivity • Siphons attention from organizational goals • Decreases morale • Reduces job satisfaction • Causes heightened anxiety • Causes absenteeism • Increases turnover 13- 7

  8. …Conflict Functional Aspects • Forces articulation of views • Results in greater understanding • Makes values and belief system more visible • Helps set organizational priorities • Serves as a safety valve • Increases cohesiveness • Spurs creativity 13- 8

  9. Levels of Conflict • Intrapersonal • Interpersonal • Intragroup • Intergroup • Intraorganizational • Interorganizational 13- 9

  10. Five Conflict-Handling Orientations assertive Competition Collaboration AssertivenessParty’s desire to satisfy own concern Compromise unassertive Accommodation Avoidance uncooperative cooperative CooperativenessParty’s desire to satisfy other’s concern 13- 10

  11. Preventing Conflict • Emphasize organizational effectiveness and common goals • Ensure frequent communication and interaction • Rotate members among conflicting parties • Avoid win-lose situations 13- 11

  12. Distributive Win-lose approach Fixed amount of resources Short-term focus on relationship Integrative Win-win approach Not a zero-sum game Long-term focus on relationship 40% 60% Distributive and Integrative Bargaining More 50% 50% Discovered 13- 12

  13. Principled Negotiation • Separate the people from the problem • Focus on interests, not positions • Invent options for mutual gain • Insist on objective criteria 13- 13

  14. Separate the People from the Problem • Be soft on people, hard on the problem • Maintain the relationship • Recognize people problems in perception, emotion, communication • Put yourself in their shoes • See yourself as a partner working with the other side to solve the problem 13- 14

  15. Focus on Interests, not Positions • What’s behind the positions of the other side? • Identify shared, opposed, and different interests • Be assertive about presenting your interests 13- 15

  16. Invent Options for Mutual Gain • Avoid the following: Premature judgment Searching for the single answer Assumption of a fixed pie The problem is theirs, not ours • Brainstorm options • Look for mutual gain 13- 16

  17. Insist on Objective Criteria • Fair standards or fair procedures • Frame each issue as a joint search for objective criteria • Reason and be open to reason • Never yield to pressure, only to principle 13- 17

  18. BATNA Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement • Determine your BATNA and that of the other party beforehand • Compare offers to your BATNA during the negotiation 13- 18

  19. Effects of Emotion on Negotiations 13- 19

  20. Emotional Approaches to Negotiation Controlling and suppressing emotions Rational Expressing positive emotions and engendering them in others Positive Expressing negative emotions such as anger and rage Negative 13- 20

  21. Managing Emotions during Negotiations • Five concerns • Appreciation • Affiliation • Autonomy • Status • Fulfilling roles and responsibilities 13- 21

  22. Cultural Influences on Conflict • Importance of saving face • Low- or high-context communication • Individualism-collectivism 13- 22

  23. High-Context Communication • Most information in physical context or internalized in the person • Listeners are expected to fill in the blanks with their own knowledge • Found predominantly in collectivist cultures • More ambiguous and indirect • Less self-disclosure 13- 23

  24. Low-Context Communication Mass of information embedded in explicit, transmitted message Found predominantly in individualistic cultures Direct and unambiguous More self-disclosure 13- 24

  25. “The Japanese probably never will become gabby. We’re a homogeneous people and don’t have to speak as much as you do in the United States. When we say one word, we understand 10, but in the United States, you have to say 10 to understand one.” Japanese Manager 13- 25

  26. Conflict in Low-Context Cultures Instrumental Linear, logical approach Issues separate from people Viewed as less threatening More direct, disclosing Face-threatening messages 13- 26

  27. Conflict in Individualistic Cultures Concerned with self and families Focus on personal rights Strong assertions of personal opinion Individual accountability for problems Concerns violations of individual expectations 13- 27

  28. Conflict in Collectivist Cultures Personal interests subordinated for the good of the group Indirect approach Face-saving measures Use of third-party mediators Group accountability for problems Concerns violations of group norms or expectations 13- 28

  29. Keys to Negotiating Cross-Culturally • Choose a representative with an appropriate level of power and status • Understand the network of relationships • Provide face-saving mechanisms • Understand how and when to show respect • Understand the communication style • Understand how integrative bargaining is viewed in the culture 13- 29