Conflict • Expressed difference between two or more people
Consequences of Dispute • Communication becomes distorted. • People view each other as stereotypes, not as human beings. • Each new escalation in aggressive behavior is justified as a counter-response to the other person’s perceived aggression. • Struggle to “win,” even if it means that the other person will lose. We have a “win–lose” battle. • “zero-sum game,” meaning that everything you gain – dollars, status, power, authority – must be at someone else’s expense
Situations that can lead to disputes: • Interdependence of people and tasks • Jurisdictional ambiguities • Functional overlap (turf) • Competition for scarce resources • Differences in organizational status and influence • Incompatible objectives and/or methods • Differences in behavioral style • Differences in information • Distortions in communication • Unmet expectations • Unmet needs or interests • Unequal power or authority • Misperceptions • Historic animosities • Ethnic stereotyping.
Components of Conflict • Ambiguity: varying interpretations • Uncertainty: unpredictable future • Competition: winners and losers • Stress and Pressure: high risk consequences • Change: promoters and resisters
Types of conflict. • Substantive conflict. • A fundamental disagreement over ends or goals to be pursued and the means for their accomplishment. • Emotional conflict. • Interpersonal difficulties that arise over feelings of anger, mistrust, dislike, fear, resentment, etc.
Different Types of Conflict • Relationship Conflict • Data Conflict • Values Conflict • Structural Conflict • Interest Conflict • Goal Conflict • Method Conflict
Types of conflict. • Functional (or constructive) conflict. • Results in positive benefits to individuals, the group, or the organization. • Dysfunctional (or destructive) conflict. • Works to the disadvantage of individuals, the group, or the organization.
Stages of conflict. • Conflict antecedents . • Set the conditions for conflict. • Perceived conflict. • Substantive or emotional differences are sensed. • Felt conflict. • Tension creates motivation to act. • Manifest conflict. • Conflict resolution or suppression. • Conflict aftermath.
What is negotiation? • The process of making joint decisions when the parties involved have different preferences.
Definition of Negotiation • Negotiation is one of the most common approaches used to make decisions and manage disputes. It is also the major building block for many other alternative dispute resolution procedures. • Negotiation is a problem-solving process in which two or more people voluntarily discuss their differences and attempt to reach a joint decision on their common concerns.
Negotiation goals and outcomes. • Substance goals. • Outcomes that relate to content issues. • Relationship goals . • Outcomes that relate to how well people involved in the negotiations and any constituencies they represent are able to work with one another once the process is concluded.
Effective negotiation. • Occurs when substance issues are resolved and working relationships are maintained or improved.
Positions in a Conflict ASSERTIVENESS Low High Work to resolve Submission COOPERATION High Partner Conflict Avoider Open Rebellion Secret Resistance Low Open Warfare Guerilla fighter
Types of Negotiation • Positional: “line in the sand” • Distributional: “one pie, more for me means less for you” • Collaborative: “expand the pie” • Interest-based • Integrative
Conditions for Negotiation • Identifiable parties who are willing to participate • Interdependence • Readiness to negotiate • Means of influence or leverage • Agreement on some issues and interests • Will to settle • Unpredictability of outcome • A sense of urgency and deadline • The people must have the authority to decide • The agreement must be reasonable and capable of implementation
Why Parties Choose to Negotiate? • Gain recognition of either issues or parties • Test the strength of other parties • Obtain information about issues, interests, and positions of other parties • Educate all sides about a particular view of an issue or concern • Ventilate emotions about issues or people • Change perceptions • Mobilize public support • Buy time • Bring about a desired change in a relationship • Develop new procedures for handling problems • Make substantive gains • Solve a problem.
Why Parties Refuse to Negotiate? • Negotiating confers sense and legitimacy to an adversary, their goals and needs. • Parties are fearful of being perceived as weak • Discussions are premature. • Meeting could provide false hope to an adversary or to one’s own constituency. • Meeting could increase the visibility of the dispute. • Negotiating could intensify the dispute. • Parties lack confidence in the process. • There is a lack of jurisdictional authority. • Authoritative powers are unavailable or reluctant to meet. • Meeting is too time-consuming. • Parties need additional time to prepare.
Conflict Escalators • Enemy Image • Simplification • Polarization • Emotions • Humiliation • Investments • The Obsession to Win
Conflict De-Escalators • Humanize • Perspective • Save Face • Desire to Settle • Share Savings • Apology
The Four-Sights of Negotiation Wisdom • Foresight: predict events and consequences • Hindsight: learn from the past to derive lessons for the future • Insight: understand yourself and your reactions to the world about you • Oversight: see the wider scope, its meaning, and interdependence
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