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  1. ANNOUNCEMENTS • Projects DUE Friday • Exam TOMORROW!! • Mass: Fri – 5th pd (volunteers?) • HW: Study for Exam: Worksheets Notes Free Puppy: See Lori

  2. Chapter 3 Persecution of “The Way”

  3. “The Way” • The Faith • Life of integrity (Law of Moses/Gospels) • Followers often killed

  4. The Greatest Persecutions… • Began under the Emperors of Rome

  5. Nero (64 AD) • Reign began the limited persecutions of Christians

  6. Diocletian (303 AD) • Persecutions reached their climax

  7. Despite the Persecutions… • The Church grew

  8. The First Roman Persecutions Part I

  9. Nero (56-68 AD) • Last of Augustinian line • Emperor at Seventeen • Advised by Seneca (a Stoic) • Immensely Cruel

  10. Nero (56-68 AD) • Murdered own Mother • Forced Seneca to Commit Suicide • “Nero Fiddled While Rome Burned” (July 19th AD 64) • Accused Christians of “Hating the Human Race”

  11. Nero’s Circus • Animals were sewn into the skins of Christians then fed to dogs • Christians were burned on stakes to provide light at night

  12. The Death of Nero • Suicide or Murder? • “What an artist dies with me!”

  13. Domitian (51-96 AD) • Emperor 81 AD • “Our lord god order that this be done!” • Dominus et Deus (Lord and God) • Focused on stopping the spread of Christianity • Tax Jews and Christians (money paid for a temple dedicated to Jupiter)

  14. Domitian (51-96 AD) • Rarely polite • Arrogant • Cruel • Granted himself unlimited power • Assonated Senators who opposed him • Reduced corruption within the courts

  15. The Five Good Emperors Part II

  16. Trajan • Reign began in 98 AD • Helped abandoned children and the poor • Eastern expedition was last major Roman Empire conquest

  17. Trajan’s Rescript 112 AD • If Christians renounced their faith and offered sacrifice to the Roman gods, they would be allowed to live despite being Christians in the past

  18. Trajan’s Rescript 112 AD • Anonymous denunciations were not to be pursued

  19. Trajan’s Rescript 112 AD • Anyone who denounced the Roman gods openly and who admitted their status as a Christian, would be killed

  20. St. Ignatius of Antioch • AD 50- 107 • Third Bishop of Antioch • Listened at the feet of St. John • Writings are the most important docs that link Apostles to the early Church

  21. St. Ignatius of Antioch • Catholic Church • Sought out Martyrdom • Seven Epistles • Denounced all heresy • Unity in Christ found in the episcopacy • Elaborated on the Incarnation, death, and Resurrection • Supported the primacy of the papacy

  22. St. Ignatius of Antioch • “It is better for me to die in behalf of Jesus Christ than to reign over all the ends of the earth.” • I do not want people to look to me as an example, for at best I can only be a pale reflection of Christ Jesus; let people look away from the reflection and turn to the reality. • "May I become agreeable bread to the Lord.“ (Last Words)

  23. The Coliseum • Place of Christian martyrdom? • Venerated by Christians as a sacred site • Well organized games held in it

  24. The Coliseum: Arguments AGAINST • No tombs/catacombs found near site • Site not sought in the Middle Ages as place of heroism (pilgrimages) • Crusaders told it was a temple to the Sun God

  25. Emperor Hadrian (123/124 AD) • Rule came after Trajan • Advocate for Hellenism • Promoted cult of gods • Designed special temple for Venus and Roma

  26. Hadrian’s Rescript • Emphasized primacy of Roman Law over the mob (people) • Christians cannot be prosecuted for their faith • Accusers who made false allegations were punished

  27. Marcus Aurelius (AD 121-180) • Adopted son of Hadrian • AD 161 Reign began • Meditations: Reflection on a Stoic’s life • Had little/no tolerance for Christians

  28. Marcus Aurelius • Adhered to Trajan’s Rescript • Outlawed Christianity • Reinstated practice of anonymous denouncements • Killed Christians when it served the interest of the Empire

  29. St. Justin Martyr • AD 100-165 • Born of pagan parents • Studied philosophy • Converted to Christianity • Apologist • Most famous martyr under Marcus Aurelius

  30. St. Justin Martyr Quotes • “We pray for our enemies; we seek to persuade those who hate us without cause to live conformably to the goodly precepts of Christ, that they may become partakers with us of the joyful hope of blessings from God, the Lord of all.” • “You can kill us, but you can’t hurt us.”

  31. Later Persecutions and the Edict of Milan Part III

  32. Septimus Severus • Controlled Roman Empire in 193 AD • Issued decree in 202 AD that outlawed circumcision and baptism

  33. St. Perpetua and St. Felicity • Perpetua sought Christian instruction for her household • Both her and her slave (Felicity) were martyred together in Carthage

  34. St. Perpetua • Daughter of pagan parents • Came from a wealthy family • Became Christian knowing it could lead to death • Baby son allowed to stay with her: “Prison became a palace” • "Stand fast in the faith and love one another."

  35. St. Felicity • Slave to Perpetua • Tormented as she gave birth in prison • "Now I'm the one who is suffering, but in the arena Another will be in me suffering for me because I will be suffering for him."

  36. St. Irenaeus • Bishop of Lyons • Disciple of St. Polycarp • Combated Gnosticism • Emphasized the episcopacy, Sacred Scripture, and Tradition in writings • Martyred under Septimus Severus

  37. St. Irenaeus • “These have all declared to us that there is one God, Creator of heaven and earth, announced by the law and the prophets; and one Christ the Son of God. If any one do not agree to these truths, he despises the companions of the Lord; nay more, he despises Christ Himself the Lord; yea, he despises the Father also, and stands self-condemned, resisting and opposing his own salvation, as is the case with all heretics.” • Against Heresies Book III Chapter 1

  38. After Septimus Severus… • Christians enjoyed about fifty years of peace • Alexander Severus allowed Christians to own property

  39. Decius (AD 249-251) • Inaugurated the first EMPIRE wide persecutions of Christians • Wanted to unify empire under one common religion

  40. Edict of Decius (AD 250) • Edict of Extermination: Anyone suspected of practicing Christianity was summoned to offer sacrifice to the pagan gods.

  41. Edict of Decius (AD 250) • Sacrificanti: Those who offered sacrifice to the pagan gods.

  42. Edict of Decius (AD 250) • Libellatici: Christians who purchased certificates as proof that they had already offered sacrifice to the pagan gods

  43. Edict of Decius (AD 250) • Thurificati: Those who burned incense to the pagan gods

  44. Apostasy • Denotes backsliding from God Three types: • Apostasy from Religious Life • Rebelling your mind against the Ten Commandments • Apostasy of Perfidy (Giving up the Faith)

  45. Origen • AD 185 – 254 • Head of the first Catechetical school in Alexandria • Ordained a priest after giving two homilies in public • Developed the Homily

  46. Origen • Stripped of vocation by Bishop • Taken into custody for two years • Teachings on the Trinity rejected by later Church Fathers

  47. Pope Sixtus and Deacon St. Lawrence • Arrested by Roman soldiers while celebrating Mass • Pope Sixtus was beheaded • St. Lawrence was asked to bring back the treasures of the Church • Brought back a group of poor people • St. Lawrence was roasted upon a fire

  48. Diocletian: Four Edicts • The First Edict – Commanded the destruction of Churches, the burning of Scriptures, and the banning of Christian gatherings • The Second Edict –Sanctioned the imprisonment of the clergy

  49. Diocletian: Four Edicts • Third Edict –Demanded pagan sacrifice from the clergy • Fourth Edict –Demanded pagan sacrifice by every Christian

  50. St. Agnes: Child Martyr • Virgin Martyr • Dedicated life to God • Professed faith while being burned • Sent to work as a prostitute • First to look at her lustfully was struck blind • Beheaded