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Concept - The influence of Communism Countries: Russia China PowerPoint Presentation
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Concept - The influence of Communism Countries: Russia China

Concept - The influence of Communism Countries: Russia China

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Concept - The influence of Communism Countries: Russia China

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  1. Concept -The influence of CommunismCountries:RussiaChina


  3. Communist countries have what in common? (1) One party systems (Communist Party) - Nomenklatura - Party dominates all areas of society - political control - economic control - social control (2) Command economy (define/describe) (3) Democratic Centralism (define/describe) (4) Totalitarianism (define/describe) -Cult of personality


  5. Russia Russia – core content

  6. Russian Key Concepts • Russia was once part of the Soviet Union, the largest collection of communist states. • Russia’s communist past has had an enormous impact on governing today. • Russia under Boris Yeltsin attempted rapid democratic reforms that have had a lasting impact • Russia has a mixed presidential parliamentary system. • The Russian political system today lacks legitimacy • Vladimir Putin initiated many policies that centralized power • The future of Russian democracy is uncertain and it appears to be moving away from democracy and toward “soft authoritarianism”

  7. Russia Regime Changes • Monarchy • Communist • Democracy • Illiberal Democracy

  8. Russia’s Past • Post-Communist state: only the communist party ran the government ( 5% of the pop.) • Communism is known as democratic centralism…debate was tolerated among the party elite…citizens lacked basic freedom of speech • The Politburo was the top decision making body • The Secretariat was the government executive branch that carried out policy • Candidates for governing position had to be on the Nomenklatura…list of officially sanctioned names

  9. Russia’s Past cont. • Under communism, they had a command economy • Government control over all aspects of the economy • Five-year-plans • Control of prices and wages Strong military and a world power

  10. Russia • Political change – Democratization • Glasnost: openness under Gorbachev • Economic Change • Perestroika: restructuring which led to privatization of many government owned ent. • Shock therapy: rapid privatization of the economy, under Boris Yeltsin Led to a new Constitution in 1992-93 • Film PBS: Privatization in Russia

  11. Russia The new Constitution How adopted? Level of legitimacy? Government Structure under new Constitution Mixed Presidential / Parliamentary System - Why? - What are key features? - Impact of Communism Dual Executive – President / Prime Minister Bicameral - Duma/Federation Council Judiciary

  12. The Russian Constitution • Provides for a national direct election for the president based on a 2-ballot system • An absolute majority is needed ( run-off is not) • Two-house legislature • Upper house represents sub-national govt • Lower house represents the general population • Leg. Operates under Parliamentary rule • Leg has irregular scheduled elections • Prime Minister is selected by the president from the majority party and must be approved by the Leg

  13. Cont. • If Leg does not approve the PM, then the President may dissolve the Duma and call for new elections. • President has broad power to select the PM • President selects cabinet members from the Leg • They must resign their seat if appointed

  14. Russia Multiparty System • Duma is elected proportionally with 7% minimum winning threshold • Divan parties • Communist • Unity • Fair Russia • Our Home is Russia • Yabloko • National Front,_2007

  15. Russian Political Parties • Communist Party emerged with a new platform – favored a slow approach to econ • Union of Right Forces – pro-market approach • Liberal Democrats – more radical nationalist party • Unity Party – ( Putin) gained power, used state resources to advertise, has dominated recent politics in Russia…Communist party still wins Duma seats

  16. More on Russia • Federalism • Russia is a federal system that is becoming more centralized • The United Kingdom is a unitary system that is becoming more decentralized

  17. Yeltsin II • Poor president • Hires and fires numerous prime ministers • Alcoholic & frequently ill; this leads to erratic political behavior • Resigns before the 2000 elections • Vladimir Putin, Yeltsin’s prime minister, takes over and wins the 2000 & 2004 elections

  18. Russia under the Presidency of Vladimir Putin Debate

  19. Vladimir Putin - Public Policy Changes Made Under his Presidency

  20. Putin’s Russia: His Impact • Putin is a former member of the KGB ( secret police) • Elected to 2 terms as President, then picked to be the PM immediately after Medvedev won the Pres • Putin’s Changes: • Changed the way the upper house of the Leg was selected, now they are appointed by the Pres. • Governors can be dismissed by the Pres for corruption • Duma: now there is strict PR – 7% threshold to obtain seats

  21. Cont. • Putin directed the government to purchase most of the media outlets. ( supposed to be priv. owned) • The Pres can flood the media with positive messages about his policies and the Unity Party • Putin restricted civil liberties: • Difficult to obtain permits to demonstrate • NGOs have been banished • Opposition has been silenced • Independent journalists have vanished

  22. Changes made to nature of Federalism • Federation Council – were once directly elected, now selected by President • Governors – power to fire governors (directly elected) for corruption • Establishment of Seven “Super Regions” (bureaucracy – heads of which are accountable to President) • Tax Reform – requires more equitable payment to central government for regions; 13% flat tax

  23. Changes Made to Political Party System • Russia began with “Divan” parties = fractured multiparty system • Putin created “Unity Party “ • Putin arranged “Fair Russia” Party – opposition party • Instituted all Proportional Representation • Raised minimum winning threshold from 5% to 7%

  24. Chechnya

  25. Chechnya • Used the state police to respond to terrorist activities (theater, school) • Held referenda on Chechen independence in 2003 (failed)

  26. Chechnya Under Putin • Chechen independence activists became violent • Putin used military to suppress the revolt and later held a referendum on Chechen ind. • The vote failed….why? Putin controlled all media

  27. Misc. • Suspension of NGOs and stricter review of foreigners conducting business in Russia • Strong commitment to market – privatization of land, foreign investment, member of the G-8, overseen prolonged economic growth • HIGH approval ratings – 80% • Has hand picked “Medvedev” to be successor, plans to run for Prime Minister • Change to Presidential Term Length – 6yrs •

  28. III. Legitimacy • Political legitimacy for Russia is currently very low, partly because changes are a drastic departure from the past • Recent evidence that country began to stabilize under Putin. • Putin has used authoritarian strategies to solidify Russia’s weak, illiberal democracy. • Historically Russia’s political legitimacy has been based on strong, centralized, autocratic rule • Tsars • Communist rule propagated by Marxism-Leninism • Democratic-Centralism: rule by a few for the benefit of the many • Stalinism changed the regime to totalitarianism • Constitution of 1993 – provided for a strong president, although power of the president can technically be checked by popular elections and the Duma

  29. Is Vladimir Putin’s leadershipgood for Russia?

  30. Russia • Illiberal democracy or • Creeping ( soft ) authoritarianism?