Sec. 1: Latin American Peoples Win Independence Ch. 24: Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West
Background • The American Revolution, the French Revolution, and the Enlightenment changed ideas about who should control government. It also led Latin American territories to get rid of the European colonists and gain control of their land. • In Latin America, class dictated people’s place in society and job.
Classes • Peninsulares – People born in Spain. They could hold high office in colonial government.
Class • Creoles - Spaniards born in Latin America. They could not hold high political offices but could rise to officers in the colonial army
Class • Mestizos – Persons of mixed European and Indian ancestory
Class • Mulattos – Persons of mixed European and African ancestry • Indians – Were at the bottom
Haiti • Haiti – known then as St. Domingue, was the first Latin American territory to free itself from European rule. • January 1, 1804 – After a long struggle with France, Haiti became independent • By 1810, rebellion had broken out in many parts of Latin America
Bolivar • Simon Bolivar – A wealthy Venezuelan Creole who declared Venezuela independent in 1811 • Bolivar led troops into battle with the Spanish and had many defeats • Venezuela finally defeated the Spanish and became independent in 1821
Independence • 1816 – Argentina won its independence. Chile gained independence next. • By 1824 – Peru, Panama, and Ecuador also gained independence
Mexico • Miguel Hidalgo – A Mexican priest who organized a ragtag army to fight the Spanish for independence. • Although he didn’t gain independence with his army, Mexico did gain independence from Spain in 1821
Independence • Central America – Many of these nations were controlled by Mexico and when they declared independence, the Mexican government refused to recognize it. • By 1823 – The nations of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador became independent. • Brazil’s independence – read p. 686
Background • Post Napoleon Europe saw a return to monarchies for many countries and an extended period of peace with each other. But many had internal problems
Political philosophies: • Conservative – usually wealthy property owners and nobility. They argued for protecting traditional monarchies in Europe • Liberal – Mostly middle class business leaders and merchants. They wanted to give more power to elected parliments but only the educated and land-owners could vote
Radicals?? • Radical – favored drastic change to extend democracy to all people. The believed that government should practice the ideals of the French revolution – liberty, equality, and brotherhood • Nationalism– Loyalty to a nation of people who share a common culture and history, not to a king or empire
Stuff • All three political theories would favor nationalism • Nation-state – When a nation has its own independent government • In 1815 Europe, only France, Great Britain, and Spain could be called nation states
Greece • While most powerful nations opposed revolution, they supported the Greeks • - Russians didn’t like Greek Orthodox Christians being ruled by Ottomans (Muslims) • - Educated European and Americans loved and respected ancient Greek culture
Greece • 1830 – with British, French, and Russian help, Greece gains independence from the Ottomans. • - Not all revolutions were successful. In the 1830’s, uprisings in Belgium, Italy, and Poland were put down.
Stuff • - Some countries accepted a monarch or dictator if the economy was strong – Napoleon III in France (p.690) • - Alexander II and Alexander III of Russia (p. 691)
2 Opinions on Nationalism • - Those who wanted to unite people of a similar culture under a single government. They saw nationalism as unifying. • - Those who wanted to restore the old empire order from before the French Revolution. They saw nationalism as a force for disunity • See the chart on p. 692
3 old empires feel the effects of nationalism • The Austrian Empire • - Brought together Slovenes, Hungarians, Germans, Czechs, Slovaks, Croats, Poles, Serbs, and Italians • - Due to a war loss to the Prussians, The Austrian Empire became the Austro-Hungarian Empire • - Nationalist disputes continued to weaken the empire until it collapsed following WWI
The Russian Empire • - The 370 year-old empire brought together Russians, Ukrainians, Poles, Lithuanians, Latvians, Estonians, Finns, Jews, Romanians, Turks, and others • Russification – A policy of forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the empire
The Russian Empire • - It backfired and led to a greater sense of nationalism and disunity • - The empire collapsed during WWI
The Ottoman Empire • This empire brought together Greeks, Slavs, Arabs, Bulgarians, and Armenians • - The Ottoman Empire began weakening in the 1880’s due to nationalism and the Ottoman’s inability to maintain control • It collapsed following WWI • Case Study: Italy – Read p. 694-695
Terms from the Case Study Italy • Giuseppe Garibaldi – Leader of nationalist troops that invaded Sicily • Red Shirts – Followers of Garibaldi • Case Study: Germany – Read p. 695 - 697
Terms for Case Study Germany • Junkers – Strongly conservative members of Prussia’s wealthy land-owning class • Otto von Bismarck – A Junker who became Prussian prime minister • Realpolitik – “The politics of reality.” Tough politics with no room for idealism
History • Seven Weeks War – a war in which Prussia gained land from Austria • The Franco-Prussian War – a war with France which gained more land for Prussia and established it as a power in Europe • Kaiser – Title for king or emperor of Prussia
Germany • 1871 – It was decided that the Kaiser would be Prussian but the empire would now be called Germany.
History • The Congress of Vienna (1815) established 5 fairly equal powers in Europe: France, Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia • - By 1871 Britain and Germany (formerly Prussia) were the strongest. Russia and Austria were far behind. France was in the middle.