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Bio212 Laboratory 6 Respiratory Anatomy Respiratory Physiology Vital Capacity. Objectives for today’s lab. Define respiratory volumes and capacities and solve for an unknown volume or capacity Describe how CO 2 levels influence breathing rate and depth

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## Bio212 Laboratory 6 Respiratory Anatomy Respiratory Physiology Vital Capacity

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**Bio212**Laboratory 6 Respiratory AnatomyRespiratory PhysiologyVital Capacity**Objectives for today’s lab**• Define respiratory volumes and capacities and solve for an unknown volume or capacity • Describe how CO2 levels influence breathing rate and depth • Perform simple spirometry measurements and record/calculate your own respiratory parameters**CO2 and HCO3-**• Carbon dioxide can travel in several ways • Dissolved in plasma (7%) • As carbaminohemoglobin (15-25%) • As HCO3- ion (70%) • Carbonic anhydrase in RBCs accelerates interconversion between CO2 and HCO3- • H+ combines with or dissociates from Hb • HCO3- diffuses into plasma or into RBCs • Cl- diffuses into RBC (chloride shift) as HCO3- exits • Diffusion of CO2 is related to PCO2 in alveoli and tissues**Control of Breathing**• Rate of breathing is affected by several control centers • Central chemoreceptors in the medulla • Peripheral chemoreceptors in aortic and carotid bodies • Largely dependent upon [H+] • The most powerful respiratory stimulant is CO2 • Normal, rhythmic breathing – dorsal respiratory group • The respiratory membrane • Simple squamous epithelium of the alveoli and capillaries • Basement membrane between them • Terms used to describe breathing (know these)**Hypoxia and Hyperventilation**• Hypoxia is a low level of oxygen in the tissues • Hypoxic hypoxia (e.g., high altitude) • Histotoxic hypoxia (e.g., alcohol, CN-) • Stagnant (ischemic) hypoxia (e.g., cardiovascular problems) • Hypemic hypoxia (e.g., CO poisoning) • Hyperventilation is a rapid breathing that causes loss of excessive amounts of CO2 to be blown off (we will do this today…)**CO2 and Respiratory Demand**Note that with normal respiration, CO2 levels will stimulate breathing well before decreasing levels of O2 result in hypoxic effects Compare this with stimulation of breathing after hyperventilation (after holding breath) Figure from: Martini & Welch, “A&P Applications Manual”, Benjamin Cummings, 2006**Respiratory Rates and Volumes**• Respiratory rate • Number of breaths per minute • Resting adult: 12-18 bpm • Resting child: 18-20 bpm • Respiratory cycle = 1 inspiration followed by 1 expiration (part of ventilation)**Respiratory Volumes**Volumes of air moved in and out of the lungs. These are measured by spirometry using a spirometer. • tidal volume – volume moved in or out during a normal (eupneic) breath ( 500 ml) • inspiratory reserve volume – additional volume that can be inhaled following a normal inhalation ( 3.0 L/1.9L) • expiratory reserve volume – additional volume that can be exhaled following a normal exhalation ( 1.1 L/0.7 L) • residual volume – volume that remains in lungs at all times ( 1.2 L) ** Cannot be removed during life**Respiratory Volumes and Capacities**Figure from: Martini, Anatomy & Physiology, Prentice Hall, 2001**Respiratory Capacities**Note that capacities are derived (calculated) from volumes (which can be measured by spirometry) • inspiratory capacity = TV + IRV • functional residual capacity = ERV + RV • vital capacity = TV + IRV + ERV • total lung capacity= VC + RV How would you express these capacities in words? (See you lab guide handout for some help…) Know these for the lab exam**Respiratory Volumes and Capacities**• IC = TV + IRV • FRC = ERV + RV • VC = TV + IRV + ERV • TLC = VC + RV Figure from: Martini, Anatomy & Physiology, Prentice Hall, 2001**Tabular Method of Calculating Volumes/Capacities**Standard Lung Volumes and Capacities (See your Laboratory Guide, “Alveolar Ventilation” from Levitzky) IC = TV + IRV FRC = ERV + RV VC = TV + IRV + ERV TLC = VC + RV**Tabular Method of Calculating Volumes/Capacities**Example of how to use the Standard Lung Volume and Capacity Table to Solve for unknown lung volumes/capacities Problem: Given the values in the table below, solve for the RV**Sample problem using equations…**• The vital capacity = 6000 ml, tidal volume = 500 ml, and expiratory reserve volume = 1000 ml. What is the inspiratory capacity (IC)? Equations… VC = TV + IRV + ERV IC = TV + IRV 6.0L 0.5L ? 1.0L ? 0.5L ? Solution… VC = TV + IRV + ERV IRV = VC – TV – ERV .06L = 0.5L + ? + 1.0L ? 6.0L – 0.5L – 1.0L IC = TV + IRV? = 0.5L + 4.5L IC = 5.0L**Sample Problem Using Tabular Method**• The vital capacity = 6000 ml, tidal volume = 500 ml, and expiratory reserve volume = 1000 ml. What is the inspiratory capacity (IC)?**Minute and Alveolar Ventilation**• minute ventilation (volume) • tidal volume (TV) multiplied by breathing rate • amount of air that is moved into/out of the respiratory passageways each minute • typically about 6 L/min • alveolar ventilation • major factor affecting concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the alveoli • volume of air that reaches alveoli – always less than minute ventilation • tidal volume minus anatomic dead space then multiplied by breathing rate • about 4.2 L/min Alveolar ventilation = breaths/min x (TV – Dead space)**Review**• A respiratory cycle consists of 1 inspiration and 1 expiration • Spirometry is used to measure the different volumes of air in the lungs • Tidal Volume • Inspiratory Reserve Volume • Expiratory Reserve Volume • Residual Volume**Review**• Capacities are quantities derived from volumes • Vital capacity (what does this actually mean in words?) • Inspiratory capacity • Functional residual Capacity • Total lung capacity • Ventilation (quantity of air moved per minute) • Minute ventilation • Alveolar ventilation • Always less than minute ventilation • Takes anatomical dead space into account • Specific terms dealing with rates of breathing**Respiratory Lab Today**• Record and analyze your own respiratory parameters; complete Laboratory Report 46 (p. 369) • Do Exercise 47 (use the instructions I handed out) and then complete Laboratory Report 47 (p. 375) • Hand in Laboratory Report 46 (with the Respiratory Parameters Table) and Laboratory Report 47 • Look at the structures listed in your Laboratory Guide for the respiratory system and be able to recognize them

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