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Symbioses - Mutualism

Symbioses - Mutualism

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Symbioses - Mutualism

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  1. Symbioses - Mutualism

  2. Symbioses • Symbioses - species living in close association • Parasitism +,- parasite benefits, host harmed • Commensalism +,0 or 0,0 can have positive effect for one species or for neither • Mutualism +,+ both species benefit

  3. Mutualism • Definition - the individuals in a population of each mutualist species grow and/or survive and/or reproduce at a higher rate when in the presence of individuals of the other. Each benefits (+,+)

  4. General Features of Mutualisms 1. The life cycle of most mutualistic species is very simple (in contrast to parasites) 2. There is no conspicuous dispersal phase for most endosymbionts (endomutualists) 3. Populations of most mutualists are stable in size - no epidemics as seen in parasites 4. The ecological range (niche breadth) of organisms in mutualisms usually appears to be greater than that of either species alone 5. Host specificity is usually flexible 6. Within populations of mutualists, the number of endosymbionts per host is relatively constant

  5. Two types of Mutualism • Facultative - each partner gains a benefit but is not dependent on the other - the vast majority of mutualisms are facultative. • Obligate - one or both partners is dependent on the other and cannot survive without the other.

  6. Mutualisms Involving Links in Behavior

  7. Greater Honeyguide

  8. Honey Badger

  9. Ants and Acacia Trees

  10. Beltian bodies (yellow) on Acacia leaves

  11. Ant larvae inside Acacia “horn”

  12. Pollination Mutualisms

  13. Pollination syndromes among the phloxes

  14. Honeybee covered with pollen

  15. Honeybee pollinating beebalm – Monarda sp.

  16. With visible light with UV light Nectar guides for honeybees

  17. Cyrtid fly pollinating a composite

  18. Caralluma – carrion fly pollinated

  19. Erysimum – butterfly pollinated

  20. Hummingbird pollination

  21. Greater double-collared sunbird

  22. Episcia – moth pollinated

  23. Bat pollination

  24. Hammer Orchid and Wasp

  25. Figs and Fig Wasps

  26. Figs and Fig Wasps

  27. Mutualisms involving Culture of Crops or Livestock

  28. Leaf-cutter Ants – genus Atta

  29. Diagram of Leaf-cutter ant colony nest

  30. Human Agriculture Sustainable Dairy Industrial Wheat

  31. Digestive Mutualisms Involving Gut Inhabitants

  32. Ruminant with multiple stomachs

  33. Ruminant by-products

  34. Termite Mound Western Australia

  35. Termites

  36. Mycorrhizae

  37. Ectomycorrhizae

  38. Ectomycorrhizae

  39. VAM – Vesicular Arbuscular Mycorrhizae

  40. Nitrogen Fixing Mutualisms

  41. Red Clover – A Classic Legume

  42. Normal Nitrogen Fixation

  43. Legume Root Nodules

  44. Rhizobium root nodules on a bean plant

  45. Animal-Algae Mutualisms

  46. Healthy Coral Reef - Indonesia

  47. Coral polyp with zooxanthellae - a dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium

  48. Coral polyp – coral animal is green, Zooxanthellae is red

  49. Endosymbiotic Origin of Eukaryotes Lynne Margulis