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Symbiosis: Mutualism

Symbiosis: Mutualism

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Symbiosis: Mutualism

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  1. Symbiosis: Mutualism

  2. Ant trees:the ants and the acacia tree

  3. Ant trees: Cordianodosaand: Allomerusoctoarticulatus

  4. Cordianodosa

  5. Live or dead, hollow stem nodes are nest sites for ants

  6. The tumultuous relationship between the ant-plant C. Nodosaand the ant species Allomerusoctoarticulatus. The relationship between these two species is much like that of other ants and ant-plants, until it comes time for the plant to reproduce. When Nodosa begins to flower, the ants attack the buds, lopping them off before they get a chance to spread seeds. The ant, in effect, sterilizes its gracious host.

  7. Allomerusoctoarticulatussterilizes flower of Cordianodosa.

  8. Ant-vines In the kerangas forest of Indonesia Dry tropical forests on nutrient-poor soils.

  9. Kerangas forests Indonesia

  10. Pitcher plant

  11. Dischidia major (epiphyte!) Malayan urn plant

  12. Dischidia major(ant plant)

  13. Philidris ants on surface of leaf of Malayan urn plant.

  14. Philidrisants, their eggs and larvae inside leaf of Malayan urn plant.

  15. Leaf-harvesting antsand fungus garden Largest “herbivores” of tropical forest.

  16. Part of a leaf-cutter ant nest

  17. Partially excavated nest of Atta colony.

  18. Atta cephalotes Note small guard ants riding on the leaves

  19. (gongylidia)

  20. Amensalism between bacterium and Escovopsis fungus

  21. Science 20 November 2009, 326 p1120.

  22. Phorid flies atttack ant.

  23. Leaf-harvesting ants and fungal infection Fungi alter the behavior of ants that they infectBefore the fungus-infected ants die, they attach themselves (by biting) to the underside of leaves that are ideally located for fungal reproduction: on the cooler and moister north side of trees, near (but not on) the ground. Adaptive social immunity in leaf-cutting ants These social ants protect each other from fungal infection by grooming each other, much like monkeys do.

  24. Nematode worm turns ant host into ripe red berry

  25. Cephalotesatratus C. Atratusinfected withMyrmeconemaneotropicum

  26. Q1. Why do Allomerus ants cut off the flower buds of the Cordianodosatree they colonize.

  27. Q2. Some species of Yucca moths are parasitic. When do these parasitic yucca moths lay their eggs?

  28. Q3. How does Dischidia major (Malaysian urn plant)benefit from its relationship with Philidris ants?

  29. Q4. The North American black cherry tree (Prunusserotina) produces extra-floral nectaries as long as the Eastern tent caterpillar (Malacosomaamericanum) larvae are _____________.

  30. Q3. What relationships are mutualistic?

  31. Q5. Why are the piggy-back ants present on the leaf fragments?