The tumultuous relationship between the ant-plant C. Nodosaand the ant species Allomerusoctoarticulatus. The relationship between these two species is much like that of other ants and ant-plants, until it comes time for the plant to reproduce. When Nodosa begins to flower, the ants attack the buds, lopping them off before they get a chance to spread seeds. The ant, in effect, sterilizes its gracious host.
Ant-vines In the kerangas forest of Indonesia Dry tropical forests on nutrient-poor soils.
Dischidia major (epiphyte!) Malayan urn plant
Leaf-harvesting antsand fungus garden Largest “herbivores” of tropical forest.
Atta cephalotes Note small guard ants riding on the leaves
Leaf-harvesting ants and fungal infection Fungi alter the behavior of ants that they infectBefore the fungus-infected ants die, they attach themselves (by biting) to the underside of leaves that are ideally located for fungal reproduction: on the cooler and moister north side of trees, near (but not on) the ground. Adaptive social immunity in leaf-cutting ants These social ants protect each other from fungal infection by grooming each other, much like monkeys do.
Cephalotesatratus C. Atratusinfected withMyrmeconemaneotropicum
Q1. Why do Allomerus ants cut off the flower buds of the Cordianodosatree they colonize.
Q2. Some species of Yucca moths are parasitic. When do these parasitic yucca moths lay their eggs?
Q3. How does Dischidia major (Malaysian urn plant)benefit from its relationship with Philidris ants?
Q4. The North American black cherry tree (Prunusserotina) produces extra-floral nectaries as long as the Eastern tent caterpillar (Malacosomaamericanum) larvae are _____________.