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Mutualism PowerPoint Presentation

Mutualism

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Mutualism

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  1. Mutualism (Your opponent) (You) Cooperation best "Stag hunt" Cooperation best, but only if opponent cooperates "Prisoner's dilemma" Same as stag hunt, except big pay-off for cheating

  2. "Stag hunt" Cooperation best, but only if opponent cooperates "Prisoner's dilemma" Same as stag hunt, except big pay-off for cheating

  3. can only work if p(A encounters A) > p(NA encounters A) (so that care preferentially directed to individuals with A) ESS: always defect Pay-off to altruist (A): Pay-off to non-altruist (NA): b(if A encounters another A) - c b(if NA encounters an A) Reciprocity influence of past interactions (that reward cooperation, punish defection) 2. many opportunities to interact

  4. Hart, B. L., Hart, L. A., Mooring, M. S. & Olubayo, R.1992. Biological basis of grooming behaviour in ante-lope: the body-size, vigilance and habitat principles.Anim. Behav.,44,615-631.

  5. RECIPROCITY: 3 main conditions 1. many opportunities to interact 2. B of receiving > C of donating 3.influence of past interactions (reward cooperators, penalize defectors)

  6. 3. B of receiving > C of donating (otherwise, favor won't be paid back in full)

  7. Interchanges EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL Observation A grooms B C doesn’t groom D Help! Help! Playback doesn't help helps D A B C Seyfarth, R.M., Cheney, D.L. 1984. Grooming, alliances and reciprocal altruism in vervet monkeys. Nature 308: 541-543.

  8. Clutton-Brock, T. 2009. Cooperation between non-kin in animal societiesNature 462, 51-57.

  9. Enforcement/punishment/coercion

  10. Enforcement/punishment/coercion Meerkats

  11. Markets, indirect reciprocity, reputation