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Philadelphia Convention, 1787

Philadelphia Convention, 1787

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Philadelphia Convention, 1787

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  1. Philadelphia Convention, 1787 • 55 delegates; most wealthy and in their thirties; 39 had sat in Congress; 19 slave owners • No official journal kept • Secrecy to ensure open debate without fear of criticism • Two basic issues • Whether or not to tinker with the Articles of Confederation or replace it • Conflicting interests of the small and large states

  2. Virginia Plan (James Madison) • Strong central government • Congress gets unrestricted rights to tax and legislate, the power to veto state law and use military force against the estates • Bicameral legislature with fixed representation based on the states population • Voters elect the lower house; lower house chooses the upper house from nominations submitted by the state legislatures

  3. New Jersey Plan (William Patterson) • Recommended a single chamber congress with each state having equal vote • Congressional laws the supreme law of the land • Courts could force reluctant states to accept these measures • Connecticut Compromise • Equal vote for each state in the upper • Proportional voting for the lower

  4. The new document accomplished the following: • Reconciled conflicting interests between the large and small states • The Senate and House • Established national authority • Lay and collect taxes • Regulate interstate commerce • Conduct diplomacy • State officials must swear an oath to uphold the Constitution • Use of military force against any state • This is an abandonment of the Articles of Confederation

  5. But there was restraint (or at least their should be if Americans understand this document and don’t allow any or all branches to get too powerful) • Three distinct branches • Checks and balances • Federalism

  6. Government • Feb. 28, 2013 • Everyone needs to have an American Government (it says American Government on the cover) book • Turn to page 760

  7. Name your representatives to the national Congress • 2 Senators and 1 Representative • How many people serve in each house of Congress? • House of Representatives – • Senate - • Name anyone in Congress other than the 3 you wrote down for number 1.

  8. Legislative: House • Requirements for office • Apportionment of the seats • http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/special/politics/2010-race-maps/house/ • Gerrymandering • Term of Office • Presiding officer • Powers • Impeachment • $

  9. Speaker of the House • John Boehner • From Ohio • Been in Congress since 1990 • Republican

  10. Majority Leader • Eric Cantor • From Virginia • Been in office since 1991 • Republican

  11. Minority Leader • Nancy Pelosi • From California • Been in office since 1985 • Democratic

  12. Legislative: Senate • Requirement for Office • Membership • Term of Office • Presiding Officer • Powers • 2/3 consent (treaties) • Jury role • Foreign Affairs • Filibuster • Cloture (2/3 present) to shut this down

  13. Vice President (and President of the Senate • Joe Biden • From Delaware • Been in office since 1972 (Senator for 36 years prior to VP) • Democrat

  14. President Pro-Tempore • Patrick Leahy • From Vermont • Been in office since 1974

  15. Senate Minority Leader • Mitch McConnell • From Kentucky • Been in office since 1984 • Republican

  16. Senate Majority Leader • Harry Reid • From Nevada • Been in office since 1986 • Democrat

  17. Pg. 83 – Term Limits

  18. Do they represent us? • Age • House- 56.7 years; Senate- 62.2 years • Education • Law degrees are held by 167 Members of the House (38% of the total House) and 55 Senators (55% of the total Senate) • Military service (21.8% of Congress) • Foreign born (8 Reps and 1 Senator) • Women (Ninety-one women-16.8% of the total membership) • House - 74 • Senate – 17 • http://www.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm • African Americans- 44 members (all House) • Hispanic or Latino- 31 members (29 House; 2 Senate)

  19. Congressional Powers • Article I, Section 8

  20. Executive • http://www.gallup.com/poll/28693/which-characteristics-most-desirable-next-president.aspx

  21. Worst • http://www.usnews.com/listings/worst-presidents/zachary-taylor • Best • http://www.gallup.com/poll/146183/americans-say-reagan-greatest-president.aspx • Sexiest (?) • http://www.nerve.com/content/the-top-43-sexiest-us-presidents

  22. Executive • Requirements for office • Constitutional vs. societal • Term (22nd Amendment) • Electoral College • How is it calculated? • What if no majority? • Who has power in this system?

  23. Executive • Powers of the President • Commander in Chief • Head of Cabinet • Grant pardons • Negotiate Treaties • Nominate Supreme Court Justices • Fill vacancies during Senate recesses

  24. The Cabinet includes the Vice President and the heads of 15 executive departments • State (1789) • Treasury • Defense • Justice • Interior (1849) • Agriculture (1862) • Commerce (1913) • Labor (1913) • Health and Human Service (1953) • Housing and Urban Development (1965) • Transportation (1966) • Energy (1977) • Education (1979) • Veterans Affairs (1988) • Homeland Security (2002)

  25. Judicial