Constitutional Convention May 25, 1787 to September 17, 1787
Purpose of the Constitutional Convention The goal was to revise the Articles of Confederation. It was quickly decided by the delegates to replace it. Did they have the legality to do so? Articles of Confederation Articles of Confederation
Philadelphia 1787 • 53 Delegates met in absolute secrecy in Philadelphia during the summer of 1787. • They met in Indepedence Hall. • On average their were about 30 delegates their every day. • James Madison was the only delegate to never miss a day.
Virginia Plan Proposed by big states Lawmaking body: Bicameral (2 Houses) Based on Population Elected by the 1st house Elected by the people # of Congressmen determined by state population
New Jersey Plan Supported by smaller states Lawmaking body: Unicameral (1 House) Each state would have the same number of Representatives or votes Based on Equality
Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan • Favored by Small States • One house of Congress • Each state would have equal representation • Similar to the Articles of Confederation • Favored by Large States • Two houses of Congress • Representation based on population • Created a stronger national government • Plans to change the Articles of Confederation • Congress could regulate trade and collect taxes • How to decide on representation in Congress
The Great Compromise This was a combination of both plans… Lawmaking body: Bicameral Congress (2 Houses) Senate House of Representatives Each state gets 2 representatives # of reps. would depend on populations
Bicameral = 2 Houses Senate House of Representatives
Slavery and the Constitution Problem 1 Problem 2 Should slaves be counted when determining how many representatives a state will have? Solution Should the Constitution ban the slave trade? Solution
Slavery and the Constitution Problem 1 Problem 2 Should slaves be counted when determining how many representatives a state will have? Solution Three-Fifths Compromise. Five slaves would be equal to only three white people when counting them for representation. Should the Constitution ban the international slave trade? Solution Congress could not ban the slave trade for another 20 years.
President Court System Separation of Powers ( How the Government will be organized ) 3 Branches Executive Judicial Legislative House of Reps. Senate = Congress Makes Laws Carries out laws Interpret the laws
Great Compromise creates a bicameral (2 houses) legislative branch
Signing the Constitution 39 delegates signed before leaving Philadelphia. Each state planned to have its own convention to vote on the adoption. Nine states were needed to ratify. December 7, 1787
Federalists vs. Anti Federalists ... Let the Battle Begin... Federalists: Supporters of the New Constitution George Washington Ben Franklin James Madison Alexander Hamilton John Jay Anti Federalists: Opposed ratification of the new Constitution 1. Would take away liberties 2. Create a strong central government 3. Ignore the will of the people 4. Favor the wealthy **Wanted the gov. close to the people Thomas Paine Patrick Henry
Ratification June 21, 1788 New Hampshire, the 9th state signed the constitution putting into effect the new government. There were still states that had not ratified. This threatened the outcome of the new Gov. The four remaining states signed by May of 1790!
George Washington was elected the first President of the U.S. John Adams was elected the first Vice President of the U.S.