American Revolution 1777 The British Strike Back
Battle of Trenton—Xmas ‘76 • On the night of December 25, 1776, George Washington crossed the freezing Delaware River to attack the British and Hessian mercenaries. • Washington’s troops marched 9 miles in the early morning hours to reach Trenton at 8AM. • The American troops surprised the Hessian mercenary soldiers captured nearly 1000 men. There were no American casualties.
Who are the Hessians? • Hessians are soldiers from Germany. King George hired these soldiers to fight the colonists.
Stripes and Bright Stars • Betsy Ross made the first American flag • June 14, 1777—Flag Day
Fort Ticonderoga • May 1775—Col. BenedictArnold and Ethan Allen with his Green Mountain Boys led a surprise attack on the British fort • July 5, 1777— John Burgoyne & the British force Americans to surrender the fort
British PlanThree-Pronged Attack • Cut Middle Colonies off from NE Colonies • Sept. 11, 1777—Howe, the British General who chased Washington out of NY, defeated Washington again at Brandywine, PA • Sept. 26, 1777—Howe, captured American capital @ Philadelphia • American government flees • Oct. 4, 1777—Howe defeats Washington @ Germantown, PA • Washington winters @ Valley Forge… Brrr!
Turning Point of the War! • Burgoyne’s Blunder • Traveled slowly • Defeated by Green Mountain Boys @Bennington, VT • Retreats to Saratoga to await reinforcements that never arrive • Oct. 17, 1777— American Gen. Horatio Gates defeats Burgoyne & the British @ Saratoga • Burgoyne & 5700 British troops surrender • France decides to help America
Valley Forge • Washington spent the winter @ Valley Forge, PA • About 2500 troops died; 2000 deserted the Continental Army • Marquis de Lafayette (France) & Friedrich von Steuben (Germany) helped train the Americans through the winter “These are the times that try men’s souls…”
Washington’s Winter Troubles • End of 1776 • Washington is being chased by Howe & Cornwallis • What’d he do: Crosses the Delaware, wins @ Trenton & Princeton • End of 1777 • Barely survives winter @ Valley Forge • What’d he do: Encouraged his troops with the news of France joining the fight