American Revolution Key People, Events and Battles
Who fought???? • Patriots – those individuals that wanted to declare independence from Britain. • Loyalists- those that wanted to stay loyal to the royal government/king. • Neutral – those individuals that hadn’t decided which side to take.
Attrition [the Brits had a long supply line]. Guerilla tactics [fight an insurgent war just wear the British down] Make an alliance with one of Britain’s enemies. Split the North & the South Establish a blockade “Divide and Conquer” use the Loyalists. Military Strategies The Americans The British
KeyPeople • George Washington- Commander of Continental Army. • King George III- King of Great Britain • Marquis de Lafayette- French nobleman who volunteered to help the colonist during the war. He persuaded the French king to send 6,000 man army to America. • Benedict Arnold- general that helped win Saratoga and tried to betray America. Arnold wanted to turn the fort at West Point over to the British.
KeyPeople • Ethan Allen- led the Green Mountain Boys to victory at Fort Ticonderoga. • Thomas Gage- British General, failed to capture Boston. • Lord Cornwallis-British general that surrendered to Washington at Yorktown • Sir William Howe- British general that won at Ticonderoga and Long Island • Hessians- about 900 German soldiers were captured at the Battle of Trenton.
KeyPeople • John Burgoyne- British gen that surrendered to the Americans at Saratoga. • John Paul Jones- naval officer that won the most famous sea battle of the Bonhomme Richardand Serapis. Jones is famous for his saying “I have not yet begun to fight!” • Baron Friedrich von Steuben- responsible for training soldiers at Valley Forge.
KeyPeople • Bernardo de Gálvez -Spanish governor of Louisiana. Attacked British forts on the Mississippi and along the Gulf Coast in West Florida, which had once belonged to Spain. Defeated the British in Baton Rouge, Natchez, Mobile, and Pensacola. • Nathan Hale- a school teacher and spy for the militia. Famous saying “I only regret that I have but one life to give for my country.” • Horatio Gates-American general, who was victorious at Saratoga
KeyPeople • John Adams-delegate to Cont. Congress, committee member to write the D.O.I., help negotiate the Treaty of Paris. • Abigail Adams-wife of John Adams. She provided food and shelter to soldiers. • Wentworth Cheswell-African American schoolteacher, who enlisted in 1777 under Col. John Langdon at the Saratoga campaign. • Samuel Adams-leader of the Sons of Liberty and signer of the D.O.I.
KeyPeople • James Armistead-first African American double agent. He joined under Lafayette in 1781. His espionage reports help defeat the British at the Battle of Yorktown. • Benjamin Franklin-committee member to write the D.O.I., gained monetary and military support from France, and negotiated the Treaty of Paris 1783. • Patrick Henry-VA legislator that urged independence.
KeyPeople • Haym Salomon-a spy, member of the NY Sons of Liberty, helped soldiers escape and encouraged the Hessians to desert the war effort. He loaned the new govt. 600k. • Thomas Jefferson- Chief author of the D.O.I. • Mercy Otis Warren-her writers convinced people in MA to become Patriots. • Thomas Paine-Patriot writer of the pamphlet, Common Sense encouraged independence. The Crisis help inspire the troops at Valley Forge.
American Revolution Battles • Battle of Lexington- first shots of the American Revolution. • Battle of Concord – first battle of the American Revolution. • Bunker Hill (Breed’s Hill)- First major battle of the war. 2,500 British troops stormed the hill twice. The colonists were short of ammunition; they waited until the enemy was a few yards away, then fired with deadly aim. On the third British attempt, the colonists ran out of gunpowder. They retreated to nearby Bunker Hill.
American Revolution Battles • Battle at Ticonderoga-Ethan Allen and the Green Mountain Boys defeat Gen. Burgoyne • Long Island (Brooklyn Heights) –Howe returned to New York in August 27, 1776 with a force of more than 300 ships and approximately 30,000 British soldiers. Howe’s army forced Washington to retreat from Manhattan to New Jersey. • Battle of Trenton-Gen. Washington crossed the Delaware River on Christmas eve 1776.The next morning he surprised and defeated the 900 Hessians.
American Revolution Battles • Battle of Brandywine -Howe and 15K soldiers attacked Washington’s 11K in southeastern PA. The Americans escaped with no serious casualties. • Battle of Saratoga-turning point of the revolution for the colonists. European nations publicly gave support to the Americans.
American Revolution Battles • Valley Forge- no battle fought, but American soldiers endured hardships during the winter. Washington and his exhausted troops settled at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, for the winter of 1777–1778. • Battle of Cowpens-Patriot Col. Daniel Morgan defeats British Col. Banastre Tarleton at Cowpens, SC on Jan. 17, 1781 • Battle of Yorktown- Gen. Cornwallis surrenders after being surrounded by a combined French naval fleet and American and French soldiers on land.
The Treaty of Paris 1763 ended the war. • U. S. was independent nation. • Boundaries would be MS River on west, Canada on north & Spanish FL on south. • U. S. would receive the right to fish off Canada’s Atlantic Coast. • Repay war debts it owed the other. • British return any enslaved persons. • Congress would recommend that the states return any property they had seized from Loyalists.