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Job Analysis

Job Analysis

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Job Analysis

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  1. Job Analysis Kelly Quirin Penn State University February 19, 2001

  2. Overview • What is job analysis? • How can you use this tool in your organization? • Methods of job analysis • How it works • Real world example • An exercise • Summary

  3. What is job analysis? • A systematic approach to collect information about a job such as tasks, responsibilities and the skills required to perform those tasks • An important part of Human Resources (HR) planning

  4. How can it be used in your organization? • Job analysis assists HR in determining: • Necessity of the job • Equipment needed • Skills required • Supervision • Working conditions • Management/employee interaction

  5. How can it be used in your organization? • Recruiting • Keyword searches on resumes that match job requirements • Selection • Appraisal • Salaries and Incentives • Training and Development

  6. The Multifaceted Nature of the Job Analysis Labor Relations Recruiting *DeCenzo and Robbins, p. 145 Selection Strategic HR Planning Safety and Health JobAnalysis Job Description Employee Training Compensate Job Specifications Performance Appraisal Career Development Employee Development

  7. Nuts and bolts • What is analyzed? • Work activities • Working conditions • Supervisors • Location • Schedule • Machines and equipment

  8. Nuts and Bolts • Who is involved in the job analysis? • Management • Supervisors • Job analysts • Job incumbent • Unions • Consultants

  9. Job Analysis Information Hierarchy Career Occupation Job Family Job Position Duty Task Element Job analysis is nothing but an accurate recording of the activities involved. For these recording we are simply gathering information to specific job attributes. The hierarchy of JA Info are shown beside:

  10. Job Analysis Information Hierarchy Job analysis is nothing but an accurate recording of the activities involved. For these recording we are simply gathering information to specific job attributes. These attributes are as follows: Element: A job element is the smallest unit into which work can be divided. Ex-Scanning picture Task: A Distinct work activity carried out for a distinct purpose. Ex- preparing lecture, typing letter Duty: Is a number of tasks. Counseling students is a duty for instructor Position: Referes to one or more duties performed by one person in an organization. Individual employee can hold a position. Asstt. Prof. – Business Administration

  11. Job Analysis Information Hierarchy Job: Job is a type of position within the organization. Example: Asstt. Professor. May be 25 Asstt. Prof. In an organization but the job is one-Asstt. Prof. Job Family: Group of two or more jobs that either call for similar worker characteristics or contain parallel work tasks. Manager, Sales and Manager, marketing may be a job family Occupation: Is a group of jobs found across organization. Accountant, Lift man etc. Career: Sequence of positions, jobs, or occupations that a person has over his or her working life.

  12. Nature of Job Analysis • Position Description • Qualification Standard • Resources BQnet: http://www.apwu.org/dept/ind-rel/bqnet/bq_alpha.cfm O*NET: http://www.onetonline.org/

  13. Nature of Job Analysis Identification Job title Reporting relationships Department Location Date of analysis General Summary Describes the job’s distinguishing responsibilities and components Essential Functions and Duties Lists major tasks, duties and responsibilities Others: Signature of approvals Working Condition Hazards • Position Description

  14. Nature of Job Analysis • Position Description POSTMASTEROCCUPATION CODE: 2301-6106 BQnet http://www.apwu.org/dept/ind-rel/bqnet/requirements.cfm?criteria=quals&OccCode=23016106

  15. Nature of Job Analysis Qualification standards for occupations in the Federal government. General Schedule positions - The Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Operating Manual for Qualification Standards Trades and Labor Occupations - Handbook X-118C Job Qualification System • Qualification Standard

  16. Nature of Job Analysis Outline the necessary basic eligibility qualification requirements for a particular occupation or a group of occupations. Specifies the minimum quality level and amount of experience required Often allows education to substitute for lack of experience. Used to evaluate internal and external candidates' qualifications for positions. Used to eliminate those persons who are not eligible for further consideration because they fail to meet the "basic" requirements for the occupation. Does not, in and of itself, identify the criteria for determining the "best qualified" candidate. • Qualification Standard

  17. Nature of Job Analysis Qualification requirements for basic eligibility may include, but is not limited to any or a combination of the following: General and/or specialized experience High school education Vocational/technical training College/university education (e.g., formal degrees) Specific major fields or courses of study Specific registrations, licensure, or certifications • Qualification Standard

  18. Nature of Job Analysis POSTMASTEROCCUPATION CODE: 2301-6106 http://www.apwu.org/dept/ind-rel/bqnet/requirements.cfm?criteria=posdesc&OccCode=23016106 • Qualification Standard BQnet

  19. Methods of Job Analysis • Observation • Interview • Individual • Group • Questionnaires • PAQ • Diary • Technical Conference • Critical Incident Technique

  20. Methods of Job Analysis • Observation Method • Analyst observes incumbent • Directly • Videotape • Useful when job is fairly routine • Workers may not perform to expectations

  21. Methods of Job Analysis • Interview Method • Individual • Several workers are interviewed individually • The answers are consolidated into a single job analysis • Group • Employees are interviewed simultaneously • Group conflict may cause this method to be ineffective

  22. Methods of Job Analysis • Questionnaires • Employees answer questions about the job’s tasks and responsibilities • Each question is answered using a scale that rates the importance of each task

  23. Methods of Job Analysis • Questionnaires (ctnd.) • Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) • A structured, behavioral questionnaire • 194 items in 6 categories • Information input • Mental processes • Work output • Relationships • Job context • Other characteristics

  24. Methods of Job Analysis • Diary Method • Employees record information into diaries of their daily tasks • Record the time it takes to complete tasks • Must be over a period of several weeks or months

  25. Methods of Job Analysis • Critical Incident Technique (CIT) • Takes past incidents of good and bad behavior • Organizes incidents into categories that match the job they are related to • Involves 4 steps

  26. Methods of Job Analysis • CIT steps • Brainstorm and create lists of dimensions of job behaviors • List examples of effective and ineffective behavior for each dimension • Form a group consensus on whether each incident is appropriately categorized • Rate each incident according to its value to the company

  27. How It Works • Conducting the job analysis • Know the purpose • Gather Information about jobs to be analyzed • Books • Charts • Trade union literature • Government agency literature • Use employee input

  28. How It Works • Conducting the job analysis (ctnd.) • Choose an efficient method of collecting information • Gather information from employee/supervisor about the job • Draft a job description • Obtain supervisor approval

  29. A Real World Example • The Department of Labor • Job analyst uses observation and interview methods to gather information about an employee • Information organized into 3 categories • Data • People • Things

  30. A Real World Example • Work Functions • Data People Things • 0. Synthesizing 0. Mentoring 0. Setting up • Coordinating 1. Negotiating 1. Precision work • Analyzing 2. Instructing 2. Operating • Compiling 3. Supervision 3. Driving • Computing 4. Diverting 4. Manipulating • Copying 5. Persuading 5. Tending • Comparing 6. Speaking 6. Feeding • 7. Serving 7. Handling • 8. Helping *U.S. Department of Labor, Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 4th ed. Revised (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1991), p.xix.

  31. A Real World Example • Job titles are listed in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles • Each job is given a code • Ex. A recruiter might be assigned the code 2, 6, 7 if the job entails analyzing data (2), speaking to people (6), and handling different things (7) • See previous table

  32. An Exercise • Bruce Spuhler, customer service manager at BGS Sports, wants to conduct a job analysis on how his employees interact with customers and other employees. • What steps should Bruce take to implement a successful job analysis, and what method should he use to analyze his employees?

  33. An Exercise • Possible Answer: • Determine the Purpose- to reinforce good behavior among employees and provide better customer service • Gather as much information as possible about retail and customer service, including past experiences with customers

  34. An Exercise 3. Choose best method of job analysis -Critical Incident Technique -This would allow Bruce to discuss with his employees past incidents and whether they were effective or not -Assign values of effectiveness 4. Gather information from workers and other managers about the job

  35. An Exercise 5. Draft a behavioral job description 6. Identify areas that need improvement, and implement training programs to improve those areas

  36. Summary • Job analysis is an effective approach to gathering information about jobs • There are 6 popular techniques to conducting job analyses • Job analysis is directly related to nearly every function of Human Resource departments in organizations

  37. References Cascio, Wayne F. Managing Human Resources. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1992. DeCenzo, David A. and Stephen P. Robbins. Human Resource Management. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1999. Gomez-Mejia, Luis R. and David B. Balkin. Managing Human Resources. Upper Saddle River: Prentice- Hall, Inc., 2001. U.S. Department of Labor. Dictionary of Occupational Titles, 4th ed. Revised (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1991), p. xix.

  38. Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis (GOJA) Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (1978) These documents are instructions to employers regarding the legality of practices, procedures, and tests used for hiring and promotion. They are a joint publication of … • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (29 CFR 1607) • Office of Personnel Management (5 CFR 300) • U.S. Department of Justice (28 CFR, Ch. 1, Part 50), • U.S. Treasury Department (31 CFR, Ch. 1, Part 51), • Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (41 CFR, Ch. 60, Part 68-3). See www.uniformguidelines.com

  39. Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis (GOJA) • The GOJA Process is a comprehensive job analysis method that has been used by hundreds of employers since its original development in 1975. • Based on the requirements of the Guidelines (1978), the Principles (2003), and the ADA • GOJA is designed to help employers build customized job analysis and selection procedures that are fair, valid, effective, and defensible. • Steps to the GOJA Process

  40. Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis (GOJA) Step 1: Assemble and Train the Panel • A panel of qualified Job Experts meeting the following criteria (1) Represent the demographics of the employee population (with respect to gender, age, race, years of experience, etc.) - over-sampling. (2) Be experienced and active in the position they represent - include relatively inexperienced Job experts for “newcomer’s perspective.” With at least one year of active job experience. (3) Represent the various “functional areas” and/or shifts of the position. (4) Consist of between 10 – 20% supervisors for a given position. • At least 7 – 10 Job Experts for providing judgments (5) Train the Panel - Overview of what will be required of them, the KSA rating system, information on how to write job duties, etc.

  41. Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis (GOJA) • The table below provides some guidance regarding the number of Job Experts necessary to obtain reliable and accurate information about the job.

  42. Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis (GOJA) Step 2: Write Job Duties Job Experts complete the Job Analysis Booklet (Part 5) a. General information (name, demographics, experience, establish credibility) b. Job overview – informal job description, materials used c. Supervisory responsibilities and independence of the Job Expert • Independently write duties (typically start with action words. (e.g., Analyze, Coordinate, Evaluate, Repair, Arrange, Delegate)) • Frequency • Importance • % of time spent • Does performance on this duty differentiate best from minimal employee • Whether removing the duty fundamentally changes the job • Assignable to others without fundamentally changing the job

  43. Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis (GOJA) Step 3: Consolidate Duties into a Master Duty List • After the Job Experts have independently recorded duties, a master list is developed. • The list reflects the majority opinion of the group. • Using a 70% consensus rule (e.g., 7 out of 10)

  44. Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis (GOJA) Step 4: Write KSAPCs, Physical Requirements, Tools & Equipment, Other Requirements, and Standards • Job Experts repeat the process described in Step 2, but for the KSAPCs, Physical Requirements, Tools & Equipment, Other Requirements, and Standards. • Job Experts list the knowledge, skills and abilities that are needed to accomplish each duty.

  45. Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis (GOJA) Step 6: Provide Ratings (Including KSAPC to Duty Linkage Ratings) for Duties, KSAPCs, and Physical Requirements The Job Experts and supervisors provide ratings on the final list of duties and KSAPCs. All Job Experts who participated in the rating process a. KSAPCs Link to duties Frequency Importance Minimum versus helpful qualification Does performance on this duty differentiate best from minimal employee Level needed for success Level needed upon entry

  46. Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis (GOJA) Step 6: Provide Ratings (Including KSAPC to Duty Linkage Ratings) for Duties, KSAPCs, and Physical Requirements The Job Experts and supervisors provide ratings on the final list of duties and KSAPCs. All Job Experts who participated in the rating process • Physical requirements Link to duties Frequency Importance Minimum versus helpful qualification Does performance on this duty differentiate best from minimal employee Level needed upon entry c. Tools and equipment

  47. Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis (GOJA) Step 6: Provide Ratings (Including KSAPC to Duty Linkage Ratings) for Duties, KSAPCs, and Physical Requirements The Job Experts and supervisors provide ratings on the final list of duties and KSAPCs. Evaluating inter-rater reliability and eliminating outliers Wrg-max = 1- (Observed variance/maximum possible variance) Alpha if rater deleted Review for accuracy and completeness Compute average rating for each duty and KSAPC Level of criticality (Importance) ratings are required by section 14C(2) of the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures.

  48. Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis (GOJA) Optional Step (for positions held by large numbers of employees): Distribute Job Analysis Survey to Additional Job Experts for Ratings US Postal Service Example - Job Analysis Survey (JAS)

  49. Guidelines Oriented Job Analysis (GOJA) Step 7: Have Two Supervisors Review the Completed Job Analysis and Assign Supervisor Ratings • Convene two supervisors for the “Supervisor Only” job analysis ratings • Can have served as Job Experts in the first six steps of the process, or be new to the GOJA Process • For duty ratings, they assign: Percentage of Time, Best Worker, Fundamental, and Assignable. • For KSAPCs and Physical Requirements, they assign: Minimum v. Helpful Qualification, Best Worker, Level Needed for Success (knowledges only), and Level Needed Upon Entry. • Supervisors meet, confer, and agree upon the final supervisor ratings for the job duties, KSAPCs, and • Physical Requirements. • If consensus cannot be reached with two supervisors for any specific ratings, an additional supervisor should be recruited to provide “tie-breaker” ratings for the areas of disagreement.