Stress and Disease Harvard UniversityDr. Donald B. Giddon Fall 2013The Stress of Being Different
Key Concepts • The psychological and physical bases of perception are known • Now, look at how they apply to being “different” as a stressor • Self vs. other perception • Face vs. body 3. Importance of physical attractiveness
What Are The Ways We Can Be Different? • Objectively • Subjectively
The Stress of Being Different: • Physically • Racial b. Appearance c. Physical anomaly/Dysmorphia • Disability • Athletic/Coordination of movement
2. Psychosocial Challenges • Mental • Geographic • Cultural • Education • Economic • Communication • Language • Artistic ability • Acting 4) Dancing • Singing 5) Musical • Visual arts Instrument
Body Image - Ideational Representation • Body image has two components • The internalized or ideographic image of one’s own or self-perception, body shape and size 2. The internalized perception of others about how they see you • Disturbances in body percept are often found in women with EDs, body dysmorphic disorder: 1. Women without pathology may overestimate body size for other reasons.
Role of Physical Attractiveness/Appearance • You don’t get a second change to make a first impression • Gender differences • Employment • Hiring • Promotion • Social • Mate selection • Education • Jury selection
What Information Can be Seen in the Face? • Age • Gender • Health • Fecundity • Personality • Race • Ethnicity
Relation of Physical Appearance/Attractiveness to Psychosocial Problems • Dysmorphia • Cleft lip and palate • Body dysmorphic disorder • Bullying: • Cyberbullying, texting, and sexting
Early Methods of Assessing Attractiveness/Self Image of Face • Line drawings • Silhouettes • Photographs • Light beams
Average Proportions Attractive Proportions
Female Features Found to Be • Universally Attractive • Large Eyes • Full Lips • Small, pointy chin • Prominent Cheekbones • Small Nose • High Forehead
The Teddy-Bear Effect • “Babyfaceness is a disarming mechanism that facilitates the success of Black [Chief Executive Officers] by attenuating stereotypical perceptions that Blacks are threatening.” Livingston and Pearce. Psychological Science. Published Aug. 31 2009 online. www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/122581570/abstract
Comparison with- Craniofacial anomalies Sensitivity of self compared with others Expectations and tolerance of mother- Familiar face Recognition Need for reduced cues
Celebrity Effect • Physical appearance • Fashion • Mutilation - Body piercing - Tattoo • Behavior • Scofflaw • Substance abuse • Anti-social • Violence • Role of media • Paparazzi
Measurement of Body Image Dr. Lisa J. Fabian uses the Adjustable Light Beam Apparatus to adjust the width of light beams to match her own estimate of the width of her cheeks, waist, hips, and thighs.
Other Cues to Physical Attractiveness BMI (Fan article) Relation of facial to body morphology (Darcy)
Mean settings on the morphing continuum for the transitions between the categories thin, normal, fat, and obese for the anorexia nervosa and control groups for both Self and Other condition.
Visual perception of female physical attractiveness J. Fan*, F. Liu, J. Wu and W. Dai 3D images of 31 Caucasian females having varying body weights (BMI ranged from 16 to 35) were shown to 29 male and 25 female viewers, who were asked to rate the physical attractiveness. The results were that the body volume divided by the square of ht., defined as Volume height index (VHI), [was a…] direct visual determinant of female physical attractiveness…which is also an indicator of health and fertility because of its strong linear relation to BMI. Long leg length was also a positive female factor.
The Female Leg – • Emily Silverstein – Brown University • Most people describe an esthetically pleasing leg morphologically. • However, self perception, particularly of athletes, includes function. • Know it when you see it. • Some existing parameters, such as 3-triangle • Otherwise not much except length and thin or proportional ankles
Some Korean Women Are Taking Great Strides to Show a Little LegMichael SchumanThe Wall Street Journal, February 21, 2001 As the winds of globalization sweep through this prosperous Asian nation, Korean women have increasingly lifted their noses, shaved their jaws and widened their eyes in a relentless drive to attain the Western image of beauty. More recently, young women have begun targeting their thick calves, a common attribute that many Koreans find masculine and ugly, in the hope of attaining the willowy legs sported by the world's supermodels.
Asymmetry Facial Asymmetry and Occupation • Lateralization of left and right hemispheres • Left (dominants for overt speech, syntax, semantic processing) • Right (visuospatial processing, 3D recognition, pronouncing consonants) • Facial asymmetry measured for Humanities, Math/Physics, Psychologists, nonfaculty staff • Humanities greater right face • Math/Physics greater left face • Psychologists mixed left and right • politicians/newscasters greater right face