Compensation theory Constraints to leisure Flow Generational groupings Leisure motives Leisure service organizations Life satisfaction Quality of life Spillover theory Work Well-being Lifestyle management Key Concepts
Leisure Motivations • Mitchell and Mason • Roger Callois • Market Research
Motivations Mason and Mitchell (Mitchell and Mason) • These two Americans developed a three-fold classification system in the late 1930s that is still relevant today. They divided activities into the categories of motor (locomotion and handling objects), sensory and intellectual.
Motivations Mason and Mitchell (Mitchell and Mason) • Motor (Locomotion): walking, running, dancing, jumping, diving, skating, climbing, etc. • Motor (Handling Objects):catching, throwing, pulling, pushing, lifting, etc. • Sensory:auditory, visual, olfactory, tactile • Intellectual:cognitive play, recreation
Motivations Roger Caillois • This French sociologist analyzed games and his research is often use in the broader category of leisure activities and recreation. Caillois concluded that there were four basic types of activities: agon, alea, mimicry and ilinx.
Motivations Roger Caillois • Agon (Competition):Activities based on competition. Skill, creativity and strength are necessary to be successful, and winning is important. Often there is a certain amount of risk involved. -sports -athletics -card games/table games
Motivations Roger Caillois • Alea (Chance): These activities are essentially games of chance. -lottery -gambling
Motivations Roger Caillois • Mimicry (Imitation): These activities involve imagination and creativity. Usually these activities center around creating an artificial mental environment. -imaginary play -illusions/day dreaming -movies -theatre
Motivations Roger Caillois • Ilinx (Vertigo): These activities are based on the pursuit of vertigo or dizziness. These games or activities affect the sense of balance either from physical or mental stimulation. -dancing (depending on how good you are at it) -roller coasters/amusement thrill rides -hang gliding -skiing -drugs/alcohol
Motivations Market Research Another common way to classify activities is by market research. These are often categorized simply to focus marketing efforts and attract business. However, the connection between marketing and society is very tight, and, like listening to a particular radio station, the general public often classifies its recreational activities by those established by marketing experts. Magazines to address particular markets often pop up, and more recently, television stations devoted to one particular niche have been created. It helps advertisers single out a group of people that they want.
Motivations Market Research Active Sports: -swimming/baseball/basketball -fishing/hunting Home-Oriented Activities: -wood working -cooking/sewing -exercise -stamp collecting Social Events: -movies/discos/nightclubs -sporting events/concerts -cafes
Quantitative Qualitative Perceived freedom Perceived constraint Holistic Recreation Discretionary time Discretionary money Intrinsic motivation Extrinsic motivation Play Games Key Leisure Terms
Play Characteristics • Spontaneous • Short time period • Intrinsically motivated • Sense of freedom (perceived freedom) • May occur during work or recreation • May produce leisure • Participated in purely for fun
Recreation • The term recreation comes from the Latin word “recreation.” This word means “that refreshes or restores.” • Recreation is engaged in not only for the fun, but also for the restorative value it has.
Recreation Characteristics • Recreation is planned for (not spontaneous) • Longer time period (as compared to play) • Requires special equipment • Requires specific facilities/environment
Games • A transaction between two or more people in which there is a sought after goal that can be achieved in only a certain prescribed manner. • The underlying principles of games center on recreation values
Characteristics of Games • Involve two or more people • Require rules • Require prescribed behaviors • Require certain equipment and activity sites • Involve a degree of competition • They are played for fun*
Group Activity • Group activities are used in RLS 30 to review learned material, explore new concepts and to present concepts to the class. While participating in group work it is essential that all group members contribute. At the end of the semester, a point score will be given by your group-mates. • Group assignments are based on your chosen sector of the recreation and leisure industry.