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NOVEL

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NOVEL

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  1. NOVEL Mr. Ravindra B. Mahajan

  2. Novel* Most imp. Genre of literature.* It is a long prose fiction—contains characters & action directed by plot. • Plot : Author’s selection & arrangement of incidents in order to shape action. • Parts of Plot: • Rising Action : complications created • Climax : greatest emotional tension situation • Falling Action : resolution of tension

  3. Purposes of Novel:1.To entertain2. To present a problem3.To portray a historical truth • Types of Novel: 1.Picaresque novel • Originated in Spain in 15th century. • Picaresque derived from Spanish word ‘Picaro’ means Rogue. • Story of adventures of a rogue. • Episodic plot., character is imp. than plot. • 1st person narrative. ,satirical, humourous. • E.g. Cervantes: Don Quixote • Daniel Defoe: Moll Flanders • Henry Fielding: Joseph Andrews, Tom Jones • Mark Twain :Adventures of Huckleberry Finn • Saul Bellow : The Adventures of Augie March

  4. 2.Epistolary Novel • Narrative is conveyed through Letters. • Characters send letters to each other. • Action progresses through Letters. • Such narrative gives direct insight into the minds of Characters • E.g. Samuel Richardson: Pamela or Virtue Rewarded • Mark Harn: Wake up, Stupid • Alice Walker : The Colour Purple

  5. 3.Gothic Novel • Term ‘Gothic’ referred to a Germanic tribe. • Later came to mean ‘medieval’ • Medieval architecture is setting of such novels. • Characterized by crime , cruel passions ; supernaturalism , haunted castles . • Sensational side of Romance. • Eg. Horace Walpole : The Castle of Otranto • Ann Radcliff : The Mysteries of Udalpho • Emily Bronte : The Wuthering Heights • Mary Shelley : Frankenstein

  6. 4.Psychological Novel * Emphasis given to internal action of character than external. * Addressed to motives , emotions ,thoughts of characters involved. • Characterization is given importance than plot. • Probe of inner recesses of minds of characters • Eg. George Eliot : Silas Marner , Mill on the Floss • George Meredith, Charles Dickens, W . M. Thackeray , Joseph Conrad etc.

  7. 5.Stream-of- Consciousness Novel • Imp. literary phenomenon of modern age. • An extreme form of psychological novel. • Deals with the consciousness of characters. • It contains interior monologue. • No chronological sequence in incidents. • Reader is invited to reorder all incidents in proper sequence. • E.g. James Joyce: Ulysses, A Portrait of Artist as a Young Man • Dorothy Richardson : Pilgrimage • Virginia Woolf : Mrs.Dalloway , To The Light House • William Faulkner : The Sound and the Fury

  8. 6.Historical Novel • Such novel is a combination of facts & fiction • It combines history with imagination. • Such novel characters , setting & action based on records of locality , nation & people. • Major characters are imaginary & minor characters are taken from history. • Historical Novels written in Romantic Period. • E.g.Walter Scott : Waverly, Ivanhoe, The Talisman • W.M.Thackeray : Henry Esmond in Victorian period.

  9. 7.Sociological Novel • Background & theme of such novels derived from social conditions. • The novel emphasizes the social & economical conditions of shaping characters & determining events. • E.g. Charles Dickens : Hard Times John Steinbeck : The Grapes of Wrath Nadine Gordimar : Burger’s Daughter

  10. 8.Regional Novel • Such novel is about setting, speech & customs of a particular society of specific region. • Based on particular imaginary land. • Important conditions of region affect the temperament of character. • E.g. Thomas Hardy : Wessex Novels William Faulkner : Oklahoma, Mississippi. R.K.Narayan : Malgudi Days

  11. 9.Allegorical Novel • a novel in which objects , events ,people presented symbolically. • its form sometimes is fable intending to teach morality. E.g. Religious Allegory of John Bunyan -‘The Pilgrim’s Progress’. • Political Allegory in that certain political personalities humourously & satirically portrayed. E.g. Jonathan Swift’s ‘Gulliver’s Travels’. George Orwell’s ‘The Animal Farm’.

  12. 10.Science Fiction • Presents imaginary reality. • Setting is some other planet or parallel earth. • Radically different in nature with ordinary experiences. • Represented in T.V. & Films • E.g. Mary Shelley-Frankenstein • Other science fiction writers H .G .Wells , Arthur Clerk, Doris Lessing , J . C. Ballard.

  13. 11.Cyber Punk • A recent development – post modern form of science fiction where things partially or entirely take place within Virtual Reality. • Virtual Reality formed through computers & networks…characters may be human or artificial intelligence. • E.g. William Gibson : Neuromancer , The Different Engine & other cyber punk writers are Michel Bruce King, Rudy Rucker, John Shirley , Doana Haraway , Philip K .Dick

  14. 12.Saga Novel • This type of novel is account of a life of a single family. • The story of family generation after generation. • E.g. John Galsworthy’s Forsyte Saga AmitavGhosh : The Shadow Lines • - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 13.Aga Saga Novel • A genre of popular novel set in a suburban or rural location. • Features domestic & emotional themes of middle class characters. • Terence Blacker has coined this term. • E.g. Joanna Trollope : 1. The Choir 2. A Village Affair 3. The Rector’s Wife 4. The Other People’s Children

  15. 14.Campus Novel • Also known as Academic Novel. • Such novels are comic & satiric in tone. • Setting is of Universities & Colleges. • Theme of nostalgic revocation of college days. • Originated in 1950s. • E.g. Kinsley Amis : Lucky Jim Mary McCarthy : The Grove’s of Academe Bhalchandra Nemade : Kosala

  16. 15. Detective Novel • Such novels focus on solving a crime. • Brilliant detective does the job. • Spy employs elements of mystery & suspense. • E.g. Arthur Canon Doyle : The Hound of Baskervilles • Arthur .C. Doyle is the creator of the imaginary detective Sherlock Holmes. • Agatha Christie : Murder on the orient express

  17. 16. Novel of Manners • Focus is on certain social customs & habits of particular social group. • Such novels either try to shape or control the behaviour of the character. • E.g. Jane Austen : Pride and Prejudice W.M.Thackeray : Vanity Fair ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 17.Existential Novel • Written from existential point of view. • Points out absurdity & meaninglessness of human existence. • E.g. Albert Camus : The Strangers

  18. 18.Magic Realism • Originally applied to school of painters in 1920s. • Now this term used to describe the works of G.G.Marquez in Colombia, Gunter Grass in Germany, Italo Calvino in Italy & John Fowles in England. • writers represent ordinary events & description together with fantastic & dream like elements & also things from myths & fairy tales. • E.g. G.G.Marquez : One Hundred Years of Solitude Salman Rushdie : Midnight’s Children John Fowles : A French Lieutenant’s Woman

  19. 19. Bildungsroman • German term which means novels of formation (education). • Development of protagonist’s mind & characters as he passes through childhood & varied experiences. • Generally about spiritual crisis & in search of Identity. • E.g. Thomas Mann : The Magic Mountain Somerset Maugham : Of Human Bondage --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Kunstlerroman • Subtype of Bildungsroman • It is about development of writer as an artist to achieve mastery. • E.g. James Joyce : A Portrait of Artist as a Young Man Thomas Mann : Doctor Faustus

  20. 20. Novel of Ideas • Novels examine intellectual issues & concepts through discussion & debate. • In such novel plot, narratives, characterization etc is sidelined by intellectual discussions. • E.g. Aldous Huxley : Point Counter Point , After many a Summer.