Eat To Lose WeightSession 3 Sacred Heart Wellness Series Beth McKinney, MSEd, RD, CHES
Checking in: Monitoring • What are you noticing about your eating?
Nutrition • Where are the calories? • Portion distortion
Calories • Calories come from pro, carbs, fat • Protein: 4 calories per gram • Carbs: 4 calories per gram • Fats: 9 calories per gram • What about alcohol???
Alcohol • Beer: 12 ounces = 100 • Wine: 6 ounces = 120 • Mixed Drinks: 65 calories per ounce of alcohol • G&T: 175 • Vodka Martini: 210 • Rum and Coke: 150 • Margarita (6 ounces): 300
Calories • Calories come from pro, carbs, fat • Protein: 4 calories per gram • Carbs: 4 calories per gram • Fats: 9 calories per gram • What about alcohol??? • One pound fat = 3500 calories
Calories Count • 35OO calories = 1 pound body fat • Reduction 500 cals/day = lose 1 pound per week • Reduction 250 cals/day = lose ½ pound per week • Alternative: increase physical activity for equivalent of 250 - 500 cals/day • Work toward small weight loss, not more than 1-2 pounds per week • Individual needs vary
Proportion of Calories • Protein (4 calories per gram) • 10-15% of calories • 40-60 grams pro/day (assume a 1600 calorie diet) • Carbohydrates (4 calories per gram) • 55-60% of calories • 220-240 grams carbs/day • Fat (9 calories per gram) • 25-30% of calories • 44-53 grams fat/day
What about other proportions? • High Protein/No Carb • Migraines, bad breath due to formation of ketone bodies • Dehydration • Chronic stress on kidneys from excreting unused protein • Low Fat • Don’t feel full • Excess carbohydrate and protein can also cause weight gain • Miss out on essential fats needed for brain development, blood clotting, nerve sensation, mood regulation. • High Fat • Very high calorie diet increases risk of weight gain • High intake of saturated fat increases risk of heart disease • High fat foods replace nutrient dense foods
Wiggle Room • Recommended proportions are • 55-65% carb • 10-15% protein • 25-30% fat • Wiggle Room • 45-55% carb • 20-25%protein • 25-30%fat
Insulin Resistance – What is it? • Pancreas is producing insulin, but it’s not working at the cellular level • Sometimes there is an over-production of insulin • Also known as Syndrome X, Metabolic Syndrome • Related to belly weight, HTN, dyslipidemia, gout, polycystic ovary syndrome, Type 2 diabetes
The Low-Carb Approaches • Rationale: Insulin causes weight gain • Many low-carbohydrate diets are extremely low, <50 gm per day • The high protein includes high fat foods, with usually no distinction saturated vs. unsat fat • There is no solid evidence that insulin causes weight gain—but no solid evidence that it doesn’t • Rule of thumb >100 gm CHO/day for health (25-30% of calories)
Calorie Deficit • One pound fat = 3500 calories • Rule of thumb: • If you create a deficit of 500 calories per day, you lose 1 # per week. • If you create a deficit of 250 calories per day, you lose 1/2 # per week.
Comparison chart Breakfast 3/4 cup Grape Nuts: 300 1 cup 2% Milk: 121 1 banana: 105 Lunch 1 bagel: 290 2T cream cheese: 105 16 oz. Snapple Ice Tea:120 Total: 1041 Breakfast 1 cup Special K: 110 1/2 cup 2% Milk: 61 1 banana: 105 Lunch Egg salad sandwich (2 eggs, 2t. Mayo): 350 2 carrots: 62 Water: 0 Total: 688
Portion Size and you • Can increased portion sizes affect how much we eat?
Portion Size vs. Serving Size Portion size: the amount of a single food item served in a single eating event such as a meal or a snack. Serving size: a standard unit of measure of foods. For example, a cup or an ounce is used in dietary guidance to help you compare while eating or shopping.
Portion Size: Then and Now Portion sizes of many foods have increased significantly over the past 2 decades Larger portions are now offered all around us, including in — • restaurants • vending machines • packaged foods in grocery stores
Grains • Everyday equivalents can help you judge serving sizes to better practice portion control. A serving of cooked macaroni is 1/2 cup or about the size of an ice-cream scoop. Recommended serving sizes for other grains include: Food Serving Size: Cooked pasta or oatmeal = 1/2 cup Whole-wheat bread = 1 slice Whole-wheat crackers = 6 whole http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/portion-control/
Fruits • One cup of mixed berries, cherries or cubed cantaloupe equals one serving. One cup is about the size of a tennis ball. Other serving sizes of fruit include: Food Serving Size: Apple, pear or banana = 1 small 100 percent fruit juice = 1/2 cup http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/portion-control/
Vegetables • Until you're comfortable judging serving sizes, you may need to use measuring cups and spoons. A half a cup of cooked carrots, for example, equals one serving. Here are the recommended serving sizes for other vegetables: Food Serving Size: Raw leafy vegetables =2 cups Raw vegetables, chopped=1 cup Chopped, cooked or canned vegetables =1/2 cup http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/portion-control/
Dairy • Serving sizes of dairy products may be smaller than you think. For example, one serving of low-fat cheddar cheese is 2 ounces or about the size of two dominoes. Here are serving sizes for other dairy products: Food Serving Size: Low-fat or fat-free milk or yogurt =1 cup Part-skim mozzarella cheese =1 1/2 ounces or about 1/3 cup shredded http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/portion-control/
Meat and Beans • Familiar objects can help you picture proper portions for meat, poultry, fish and beans. For example, a 3-ounce serving of fish is about the size of a deck of cards. Here are the serving sizes for meat and meat substitutes: Food Serving Size: Cooked skinless poultry or fish =3 ounces Cooked lean meat =1 1/2 ounces Cooked legumes or dried beans =1/2 cup or about the size of an ice cream scoop http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/portion-control/
Does Portion Size Matter? Large portion sizes do not matter if a person: • chooses to eat only an appropriate serving size rather than the whole portion served • eats fewer calories in subsequent meals and snacks to control overall calorie intake
Do you?... • Do people intuitively assess how much is an appropriate serving size? • Do people actually eat only the appropriate serving size when more is offered? • Do people adjust what they eat at subsequent meals after consuming large portion sizes? • Research shows • people often eat the amount in front of them • people have difficulty assessing whether or not it is an appropriate amount
Portion Size Matters Short-term studies show that people eat more when they are confronted with larger portion sizes.
Portion Size Affects Consumption Submarine sandwich study Subjects received different size (6-, 8-, 10-, and 12-inch) submarine sandwiches for lunch on 4 different days Men and women ate significantly more as the size of the sandwich offered increased Pasta study In a restaurant setting, a pasta entrée was served in different portion sizes on different days People ate more when offered larger portions Rolls et al. JADA 2004. Diliberti et al.Obesity Res 2004.
Portion Size and Snacks Participants received snacks of potato chips in identical bags increasing in size (from 28g to 170g) • Men and women, intake increased significantly as package size increased • Women ate 18% more and men 37% more from the 170g bag than when served an 85g bag Participants did not adjust their intakes at dinner to compensate for the differences in snack intake Combined calorie intake was much greater when they consumed the larger snack Rolls et al. Appetite 2004.
Portion Size and Snacks People in a movie theater were given medium (120 g) or large (240 g) buckets of popcorn. • Subjects were divided into 2 groups based on whether they thought the taste was favorable or unfavorable • Larger portion sizes increased the amount eaten regardless of how participants rated the popcorn’s taste Wansink and Park. J Database Marketing 1996.
How accurately do we assess portion size? Generally people incorrectly assess how much they eat Gender, age, weight, and level of education cause differences in estimating portion size Food cues may override physiologic satiety cues, including • Large portions • Easy access • Sensory attractiveness of food
What factors are associated with increased food consumption? Other cues also cause people to eat more than they need, such as • restaurant setting • convivial atmosphere • choosing foods with high energy density • alcohol consumption
Opinions? Thoughts? • Where is your thinking now?