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Video Modeling

Video Modeling

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Video Modeling

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  1. Video Modeling Catherine Taylor Caldwell College Graduate Programs in Applied Behavior Analysis

  2. What is Video Modeling? “The occurrence of a behavior by an observer that is similar to the behavior shown by a model on a videotape” -Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004, p. 93 “A behavioral technique that uses videotapes…target behaviors in order to expand the learner’s capability to memorize, imitate, and generalize or adapt targeted behaviors” -McCoy, & Hermansen,2007, p. 183

  3. Effects of Video Modeling on Social Initiations by Children with Autism (Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004) Nikopoulos Keenan

  4. Effects of Video Modeling on Social Initiations by Children with Autism(Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004) Background • Children with autism make or accept fewer social initiations and spend more time playing alone compared to their typically developing peers (Koegel, et al., 2001) • Video modeling is a method for promoting social skills (LeBlanc, et al., 2003) Purpose • Examine effects of video modeling on social initiation and reciprocal play

  5. Method (Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004) Participants • 3 boys diagnosed with autism, 7-9 yrs old Setting • Video model one room • Social initiations and play measured in another room

  6. Method(Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004) Stimulus Materials • 4 toys • Ball, trampoline, tambourines and a game • All familiar with the toys • Video tape • Typically developing peer (model) enters room with the experimenter • Experimenter sits in chair opposite the toys • Child takes experimenter by hand and says “Lets play” • Both play with toy closest to the experimenter’s chair for about 15 seconds

  7. Method(Nikopoulos & Keenan, 2004) Response Measurements • Social Initiation • Child approaching the experimenter • Emitting a vocal (“Let’s play”) or gestural (taking hand) behavior • Leading experimenter to the toy • Reciprocal Play • Child engaged in appropriate reciprocal toy play with the experimenter • Session terminated by the participants (i.e. walk away, say “all done”) or 5 min maximum Latency to social initiation and total duration of reciprocal play were recorded

  8. Procedure Multiple baseline across subjects • Baseline • Child and experimenter enter room • Experimenter sits in seat across from toys • All toys present • Rotation of toys located by the experimenter’s seat • Video modeling • Condition B1: View of video before entering room • If social initiation occur within 25sec 3 consecutive sessions during each condition  Condition C • If not Condition B2 • Condition B2: Simplified video. No play model • Condition C (generalization): • Removal of toy depicted in video and 2 other toys. • See if respond with different toy then in video. • Follow up 1 and 3 months after final measurements

  9. Results • Baseline: • No social initiation or reciprocal play • Condition B1: • 1 child engaged in social initiation and reciprocal play • Condition B2: • Other 2 children engaged in social initiation and reciprocal play • Condition C: • 1 child engaged in social initiation and play (generalized) • Other 2 children social initiation only to play with modeled toy • Duration of reciprocal play increased for all • More so in 3-month then 1-month follow up • Latencies to social initiation were low in follow-up

  10. Implications • Social initiations as well as reciprocal play skills can be taught to children with autism using video modeling. • These skills appear to maintain for at least 3 months following teaching.

  11. Possible Stimulus Control Issues Reinforcer Preference Assessment Not Conducted • How were items chosen? • Trained on one item, expected to generalize skills to other 3 toys How Well do the Participants Play with the Toys? • Jumping on a trampoline vs. game • Ability could reflect on EO to initiate and play

  12. Possible Stimulus Control Issues What Possibly Contributed to the Ability of SDs to Gain Control Over Behavior? • Item’s proximity to the chair • Video model always chose one closest to experimenter • Positional prompt • Placement of Toys • Always in similar places • Experimenter • No mention of generalization to other individuals • Room • No other room used

  13. Possible Stimulus Control Issues Removal of Toys During Condition-C May have Contributed to the Increase in Play Results • Perhaps create EO for the non-removed toy • No other toys to play with • Tweak-out: During initial baseline contains removal of all but one of the toys.

  14. Other Considerations Influences on the Effects of Video Modeling • Participants’ Imitation Skills • Previous study by Nikopoulos and Keenan (2003), state that social initiation was “dependent on imitation skills” (p. 102) • Preference of watching videos • Many different ways to conduct • When/how reinforced?

  15. Other Considerations What is ‘Reinforcement’ for Desired Behaviors? • Toys? • Social interaction? • Is access to toys blocked with out social interaction? • What would you want the stimulus control to be for child initiating and then playing with you?

  16. References • Keogel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., Frea, W. D., & Fredeen, R. M. (2001). Identifying early intervention target for children with autism in inclusive school settings. Behavior Modification, 25, 754-761. • LeBlanc, L. A., Coates, A. M., Daneshvar, S., Charlop-Christy, M. H., Morris, C., & Lancaster, B. M. (2003). Using video modeling and reinforcement to teach perspective-taking skills to children with autism. Journal of applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 253-257. • McCoy, K. & Hermansen, E. (2007). Video modeling for individuals with autism: A review of model types and effects. Education and Treatment of Children, 30, 183-213. • Nikopoulos, C. K., & Keenan, M. (2003). Promoting social initiation in children with autism using video modeling. Behavioral Interventions, 18, 87-108. • Nikopoulos, C. K., & Keenan, M. (2004). Effects of video modeling on social initiations by children with Autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 93-96.

  17. Other Interesting Articles About Video Modeling • Buggey, T. (2005). Video self-modeling applications with students with autism spectrum disorders in a small private school. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 20, 52-63. • Charlop, M. H., & Milstein, J. P. (1989). Teaching autistic children conversational speech using video modeling. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 22, 275-285. • Charlop-Christy, & M. H., Daneshvar, S. (2003). Using video modeling to teach perspective taking to children with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5, 12-21. • D’Ateno, P., Mangiapanello, K., & Taylor, B. A. (2003). Using video modeling to teach complex play sequences to a preschooler with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 5, 5-11. • Reeve, S. A., Reeve, K. F., & Townsend, D. B. (2007). Establishing a generalized repertoire of helping behavior in children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 123-126. • Taylor, B. A. Levin, L., & Jasper, S. (1999). Increasing play-related statements in children with autism toward their siblings: Effects of video modeling. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 11, 253-264.

  18. Questions?