Video Modeling Helen T. Dainty, Ph.D., Laura Graves, Ph.D., Amy Locke-Callender, EdS.
Temple Grandin My mind works like Google for images. I can run an entire video in my head and stop it, fast forward it, and freeze frame it (http://www.ted.com/talks/temple_grandin_the_world_needs_all_kinds_of_minds.html).
Example of a Picture Schedule 7:00-7:15 Gathering materials 7:15-8:00 Technology instruction 8:00-8:10 Restroom Break 8:10-8:55 Technology instruction 8:55-9:00 Time to clean up and leave
Academic Narrative for Writing I need to get my supplies ready before I begin the writing process. I need a pencil and some paper, including a story map. When I Brainstorm a topic, I think of all the things that are associated with that topic and I write them down on my paper. After I have written down at least 15 ideas I will use a graphic organizer called a Story Map and organize my ideas onto the story map. Once I complete the story map I will create a title for my story. I am now ready to begin writing my Rough draft. I will use the story map as a guide to help me sequence the story. Once I have finished the rough draft, I will begin to Edit my story for grammatical and spelling errors. I can ask a friend or the teacher to help me with this step. This is also called revision. After my story has been edited I am ready to write the Final copy. When the final copy is rewritten, I will submit it to my teacher for a grade.
Video Modeling A strategy which involves the use of videos to teach a self-help skill, social interaction skill, communication, academic skill, play skills, or behavioral expectations through modeling of the target behavior.
Generalization… • is best acquired when the use of multiple videos is: • across settings • across subjects • across activities
Four Point of View Types of Video Modeling • Video-prompting: videoing steps in a task analysis and having the student to one task at a time viewing the video for each task. • In-vivo modeling: Video which shows traditional role-playing activity. • Video modeling: creating the video where someone other than the child is performing the task. The child views the video then performs the task. • Video self-modeling: Video is of the child performing the task. It is helpful to have a script with this for prompting. Child watches the video and then completes the task. (Ogilvie, 2001).
Basic Steps • Identify the skill you want to target • Obtain parent or guardian permission • Collect baseline data • Prepare the area • Create the video/script • Implement the video • Collect data • Assess and reflect
Identify the skill you want to target • Assess the student and his/her skill level through observation • Choose the target behavior • Operationally define the target behavior • Collect baseline data
Create the video/script • Determine digital recording device (video recorder, iPad, iPhone) • Task analyze the skill to be modeled • Create 3 – 5 scripts for each targeted behavior so you can show across settings, individuals and activities • Create the video(s) • Edit as needed
Implement the Video • Determine the time video needs to be watched. Preference is immediately preceding the expected behavior to be completed. • Video should be viewed in same setting as the target behavior is to occur. • Immediately after viewing the video have the child engage in behavior. • Collect data • Teach students to self-monitor or self record progress
Assess and Reflect • Ask yourself: • Did the students demonstrate the target skill after viewing the video? • Did the skill generalize to other settings? • What worked well? • What did not work? • Re-adjust as necessary. (Ogilvie, 2001)
Examples • Hand washing with script • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c4p4oRU21Eg • script • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v0CS30uLQuo
Things to Remember • Videos are to be 2-4 minutes in length. • Videos target behaviors to be learned • Videos can have a script with them • Videos are taught across settings, subjects, and activities. • Based on Bandura, 1977, social modeling
Activity Create your own video modeling video Share with a colleague
References • Ganz, J. B., Earles-Vollrath, T. L., & Cook, K. E. (2001). Video modeling; A visually based intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder. Teaching Exceptional Children, 43, p. 8-19. • Ogilvie, C. R. (2001). Step by step: Social skills instruction for students with autism spectrum disorder using video models and peer mentors. Teaching Exceptional Children, 43, p. 20-26.