Video Modeling Presented by: Jill Varley ESC Region XI Texas Transition Conference
Video Modeling • Video modeling: video tapes that are demonstrating the routine in the setting in which it occurs. • Video Self-Modeling: child is seen doing his/her best performance
Charlop-Christy et al (2000), in their comparison of modeling (called in vivo modeling in the study) and video modeling, included both low and high functioning participants, and found both types of modeling to be successful with all participants. Research on Video Modeling
Several of the studies that found students were able to learn via modeling also found that the participants generalized the results across settings (charlop et al., 1983; ihrig & wolchik, 1988; tryon & keane, 1986) and across persons (charlop et al., 1983; ihrig & wolchik, 1988; tryon & keane, 1986). Research on Video Modeling
Video Modeling Using Technology to Teach • Teaching social skills • Teaching functional routines • Teaching classroom behavioral expectations
Video Modeling – Instructional video modeling • View video of the task or skill • Social skills, functional skills (hand washing, sweeping), etc. Video Self Modeling/ Positive Self Review • The student performing the task really well– edited for success • Articulation, social skills, working quietly in class, raising their hand, transitioning from one activity to another
Instructional Video Modeling • IVM appeared effective in increasing attending behaviors by reducing over selectivity of specific cues by systematically directing the children's focus to relevant stimuli. Shipley-Benamou (2002).
Possible Reasons for the Success of IVM • Attentionaldemands minimized • Listening to minimal necessary language. • Motivation to attend and learn from the videos seemed to have been enhanced by the low demand of video viewing. Shipley-Benamou (2002)
Possible Reasons for the Success of IVM • Natural reinforcing properties of videos to students with autism. • The technique was meant to capitalize on visual learning strengths that are often found in students with autism as well as the strength in visual learning reported on previous assessments for the children in the present research. Shipley-Benamou (2002)
Video Self-Modeling Video modeling, in which a video demonstration of a person performing a desired behavior is used as a teaching aid, and video self-modeling (VSM), in which students are video taped successfully performing behaviors and then watch those videos as models, have both been used as ways to teach desired behaviors to students with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD).
Video Self-Modeling • Is defined as a procedure in which people see themselves on videotapes showing only adaptive behavior • This strategy is used in professional sports – athletes focus on their successes. • Videos for student learning are edited – edit out adult support or student mistakes so that the student views their successes.
Video modeling and VSM are effective intervention strategies for addressing skills important to self-determination for students with ASD, including behavioral functioning, social-communication skills, and functional skills.. . Bellini, S. & Akullian, J. (2007)
……students performed best when they were highly motivated and attentive either because they enjoyed watching videos or in the case of VSM because watching themselves successfully perform a task on video increased their interest, attention, and possibly their self-efficacy. Bellini, S. & Akullian, J. (2007)
VM was more effective than live modeling in teaching daily living skills to students with ASD. • Children viewing the video model demonstrated better generalization of skills across settings and improvements were maintained.
Feed-forward • Student performs a task edited for success (sequence of steps that they are not independently putting together yet or take too long completing the task) • Morning Routine, Making a sandwich, Phrases/conversation • Video Preview / Priming • New situation – field trip, new school, day surgery, haircut, etc.
Video Modeling • Select Target Behaviors EX: folding towels • Obtain the Baseline • Get the Right Equipment Video camera / Digital Video Camera • Select actors • Write a Script
Video Modeling • Arrange the video-taping Environment • Make the Instructional Video • Arrange the Teaching Environment • Present the Video Models • Monitor Progress
Tips for making your own videos… • Select the right environment – empty background in order to highlight materials/subject. • For conversational video models be sure the environment is quiet • Shooting Tips • Hold the camera steady • Avoid fast zooming in and out • Move the camera very slowly
Digital Camcorder • Flip Video Camera • RCA Small Wonder • Other similar products They are small, usually run on AA batteries and download to the computer using a built in USB connection. They usually include their own internal software program which is activated when plugged into the computer’s USB port. Just like a digital camera – it is a point, shoot & then download. The cameras usually holds 30 minutes to 60 minutes. Record then download onto the computer and then delete it from the camera.
Resources • Icontalk.com • http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu • Texas Statewide Leadership for Autism website www.txautism.net • TD Social Skills – Fitting In & Having Fun
Resources • Free video converters • Any Video Converter, Hamster Video Converter, etc. • Jill Varley ESC Region XI Autism Consultant
References • Apple, A.L., Billingsley, F., Schwartz, I.S. (2005). Effects of video modeling alone and with self-management on compliment-giving behaviors of children with high-functioning ASD. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 7, 33-46. • Bellini, S. & Akullian, J. (2007). A meta-analysis of video modeling and video self-modeling interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Exceptional Children, 73, 261-284.
References • Quill, K.A. (2000). Do-Watch-Listen-Say. Social communication intervention for children with autism. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes. • Schreibman, L., Whalen, C., Stahmer, A. (2000). The use of video priming to reduce disruptive transition behavior in children with autism. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2, 3-11.
References • Sherer et al. (2001). Enhancing Conversation Skills in Children with Autism via Video Technology. Behavior Modification, Vol. 25 No. 1 • Shipley-Benamou, R, Lutzker, J.R., Taubman, M (2002). Teaching daily living skills to children with autism through instructional video modeling. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. 4, 166-177.
References • Texas State Leadership for Autism -http://www.txautism.net/manual.html • National Professional Development Center – Evidence Based Practice http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/content/video-modeling • Video Modeling – Steps -http://autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/sites/autismpdc.fpg.unc.edu/files/VideoModeling_Steps_0.pdf