Nonpolar • Polar • Charged
Carboxylic acid Amine Amide
Proteins are polymers of Amino Acids joined by peptide linkages
SECONDARY (2º) STRUCTURE • -Helix
Secondary (2º) Structure results from hydrogen bonding between along the backbone
TERTIARY (3º) STRUCTURE • Overall 3-D shape of the protein • Determined by interactions between side chains • Hydrogen bonding • Hydrophobic interactions • Ionic interactions • Disulfide bonds
Hydrogen Bonding • Polar side chains -OH -NH2 - NH2 -SH
HYDROPHOBIC INTERACTIONS • Nonpolar side chains
IONIC INTERACTIONS • Charged side chains
DISULFIDE BONDS • Cysteine residues
Hormone released by pituitary gland that causes uterine contractions. Insulin
CH2-S-S-CH2 -helix in keratin -helix in keratin s s s s s s s s s s s s Reducing Agent Oxidizing Agent
3º Structure 2º Structure 1º Structure
QUATERNARY (4º) STRUCTURE • The arrangement of subunits to form a larger protein. Hemoglobin
Transport Structural Storage Hormones Receptor Contractile Defensive PROTEIN FUNCTIONS
DENATURATIOIN Native state Denatured state
Heat Acids/bases • Organic solvents • Detergents
ALZHEIMERS • Alois Alzheimer first reported symptoms in 1906 • The two principal changes • Plaques - deposits of protein called beta amyloid. • neurofibrillary tangles- malformations of the protein tau within nerve cells.
Plaques - amyloid precursor protein (APP)—Protein that is normally an essential component of the brain. Plaques are made when an enzyme snips APP apart at a specific place and then leaves the fragments--beta amyloid--in brain tissue where they come together in the spaces between neurons and form abnormal deposits.
Neurofibrillary Tangles - Tangles are twisted fibers inside the neurons caused by changes in a protein called tau
Plaques and tangles block the normal transport of the electrical messages between the neurons that enable us to think, remember, talk and move. As AD progresses, nerve cells die, the brain shrinks, and the ability to function deteriorates.
SICKLE CELL ANEMIA SICKLE CELL NORMAL