Amino Acids Characteristics and Structures
Amino Acids There are 20 amino acids derived from proteins. While there are several methods of categorizing them, one of the most common is to group them according to the nature of their side chains. 1-Nonpolar Side Chains 2-Polar, Uncharged Side Chains 3-Charged Side Chains
Amino Acids 1- Nonpolar Side Chains There are eight amino acids with nonpolar side chains. Glycine, alanine, and proline have small, nonpolar side chains and are all weakly hydrophobic. Phenylalanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, and methionine have larger side chains and are more strongly hydrophobic.
Amino Acids 2- Polar, Uncharged Side Chains There are also eight amino acids with polar, uncharged side chains. Serine and threonine have hydroxyl groups. Asparagine and glutamine have amide groups. Histidine and tryptophan have heterocyclic aromatic amine side chains. Cysteine has a sulfhydryl group. Tyrosine has a phenolic side chain.
Amino Acids 3- Charged Side Chains There are four amino acids with charged side chains. Aspartic acid and glutamic acid have carboxyl groups on their side chains. Arginine and lysine have side chains with amino groups.
Amino Acids Importance of Amino Acids Amino acids are the building blocks of protein and you get protein from your diet. If you eat a variety of healthy protein-containing foods, you will get all of the eight essential amino acids that your body can't make for itself. Amino acids combine into small chains via chemical reactions called 'condensation reactions‘ in which the carboxyl group and the amino group bond to one another. These small chains that contain a few amino acids linked together are called polypeptide chains (the individual amino acids are called petides). Polypetide chains, in turn, combine into the more complex structures know as proteins
Amino Acids Essential and Nonessential Amino Acids Nonessential amino acids are those that are synthesized by mammals, while the essential amino acids must be obtained from dietary sources The twenty amino acids can be divided into two groups of 10 amino acids. Ten are essential and 10 are nonessential. However, this is really not accurate , as there is overlap between the two groups.
Amino Acids Only two Examples Will be Enough
Amino Acids Strecker amino acid synthesis