Geography 7 Introduction to Geography Cardinals!
Artic Ocean ASIA N. America Europe Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Africa Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean S. America Australia Southern Ocean Antarctica The Global World
The New Global World – Region Artic Ocean Russia and Eurasian Republic N. America Europe Atlantic Ocean E. Asia Pacific Ocean S. Asia Modern Middle East M. America Sub-Sahara Africa Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean N. America S. E. Asia S. America Europe Oceania Australia Southern Ocean Antarctica
What is Geography? • Geography is the study of everything on Earth, from rocks and rainfall to people and places. • Geographers study how the natural environment influences people, how people’s activities affect Earth, and how the world is changing. • Geographer’s must look at many different things, including cities, cultures, population, political, economical, natural resources, and the physical environment. • Geographer’s focus on “where” things are and “why” they are there • Geographer’s organize materials by place, because they understand that something happening at one place can result from something that happened elsewhere and can affect conditions at other places
What is Geography? • Misconceptions of geography: • Merely memorizing lists of countries and state capitals • Studying rocks and soil • Looking at maps and pictures of faraway places Section I
History of Geography • The word geography, invented by the ancient Greek scholar Eratosthenes. Geography is based on two Greek words, Geo meaning “Earth” and graphy meaning “to write”. • Geography is one of the oldest human activities. • An early geographic activity was as simple as a man taking a journey – deep into the jungle or desert, climbing a hill or mountain or merely crossing a river and inform his/her fellow tribesmen of what was on the other side. • Today everyone uses geography in some form – drawing a map to their house, watching the weather channel and even judging migration.
Artic Ocean ASIA N. America Europe Atlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean Africa Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean S. America Australia Antarctica The Six Essential Elements • The World in Spatial Terms: Dividing the World into manageable sizes. • Continents • Oceans • Grids • Hemispheres
The Six Essential Elements • The world in Spatial Terms includes Location (Where a place is.) Location can be described two ways: • 1. Absolute Location: The exact location on the Earth. This is determined by using the imaginary geographic grid of parallels (lines of latitude) and meridians (lines of longitude). Prime Meridian Equator Equator Section I
The Six Essential Elements • The Second way Location can be described is in terms of • Relative Location: It is merely a reference to a place by using a more familiar location. • Example: Next to Publix, On Wickham, in Florida, Off the Coast of Florida, three houses down on the left Section I
The Six Essential Elements • Places and Regions: • Places: the description of the characteristics (human or physical) of a location. • Such as landforms, climate, animal life, human population. • Regions: A number of places united that have one or more common characteristic. • Rocky Mountains, tornado alley, The West Coast, The Great Plains Section I
The Six Essential Elements Places and Regions: Section I
The Six Essential Elements • Physical Systems: All the physical activity of the environment. • Flooding, earthquakes, mountains, rivers, volcanoes, and weather patterns.
The Six Essential Elements • Human Systems: People are central to geography. Our activities, movements and settlements shape Earth’s surface. • Farming vs ranching • Migration patterns • Wars • Governments • Religions • Movement-People move for many reasons including new jobs, to attend special schools, to be closer to family, to move away from a place (Dust Bowl), or to move to a place (Gold Rush) • The movement of ideas or behaviors from one place to another is called diffusion.
The Six Essential Elements • Environment and Society: Human-Environment Interaction Geographers study how people and their surroundings affect each other • Geographers study how humans depend on their physical environment to survive • Geographers study how humans change their behavior to be better suited to an environment • How humans change the environment • Flooding • Farming • Hurricane Katrina • The Dust Bowl
The Six Essential Elements • The uses of geography: Putting it all together. Analyzing past events to help us prevent future events. • Developing transportations networks • Migration
Who Uses Geography • Everyone! • We use it by finding our way to a new place – a friend, restaurant, amusement park • When we watch the news – Israel invades Lebanon • Planning a vacation • What to wear – shorts vs pants, jacket, sunglasses • Athletes – winds, sun, rain, temperature, slope of the field • Professions: • Cartographers – the study of maps and mapmaking, maps are an essential part of geography • Meteorology – the study of weather, forecasting • Government – FBI, CIA military study countries cultures and physical characteristics • Teachers – develop new geographers Section I