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Introduction to Geography

Introduction to Geography

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Introduction to Geography

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  1. Introduction to Geography Chapter 5: Population, Population Increase and Migration

  2. Population • Population geography • Distribution of humankind • Internal population dynamics • Birth rates & death rates • Emigration • Immigration • Demography • Specific group characteristics

  3. Distribution and Density • Population • 6.8 billion (2010) • Major concentrations • East Asia • South Asia • Europe from Atlantic to Ural mountains • Secondaryconcentrations • Southeast Asia • Eastern U.S. & Canada

  4. Cartogram of World Population

  5. Population Density • Arithmetic density • Number of people per unit of land • Physiological density • Density of population per unit cropland • Carrying capacity • Theoretical maximum number of people a piece of land can support, given: • Physical qualities of the land • Social, technological, & economic systems of society

  6. Factors Influencing Population Distribution • Climate • Low density: hot, cold, dry • High density: warm midlatitudes • Topography and soils • Flat areas = easier cultivation • Accessibility to water • Fertile soils • History • Domestication of plants & animals • Demarcation of cultural & political territories

  7. World Population Growth • Crude birth rate • Crude death rate • Natural increase • Natural decrease • Total fertility rate • Replacement rate

  8. Projections • Projection: future prediction, assuming current trends continue • Zero population growth • Doubling time

  9. Rates of Annual Population Increase

  10. Population Pyramids • Population pyramids • Age & gender of population • Dependency ratio • Proportion of population of working age • Ages 15-64

  11. Median Ages of National Populations

  12. Demographic Transition Model • Stage 1 (pre-transition) • Crude birth/death rate high • Little growth • Stage 2 (early expanding) • Lower death rates • Infant mortality rate • Natural increase high • Stage 3 (late expanding) • Indicative of richer developed countries • Higher standards of living/education • Stage 4 (post-transition) • Crude birth/death rate low • Stable • Stage 5 (declining?)

  13. Crude Death Rates

  14. Total Fertility Rates (1950)

  15. Total Fertility Rates (2010)

  16. Fertility Transition • Decline in fertility rates in rich countries, 1800s • Trends in poor countries today • Much faster decline than in today’s rich countries • Not necessarily associated with better living conditions • Reasons for decline • Government programs/policies • Availability of contraceptives • Status of women • Diffusion of changing attitudes toward fertility

  17. Epidemiological Transition • Epidemiology: Study of incidence, distribution, & control of disease • Control of infectious diseases caused by pathogens • Infectious diseases still present in poor countries • Pneumonia • Diarrheal disease • HIV/AIDS • Tuberculosis • Degenerative diseases leading cause of death in rich countries • Heart disease • Obesity • Tobacco use

  18. HIV/AIDS, Ages 15-49, 2007

  19. Overpopulation? • Malthusian theory • Pessimistic perspective • Thomas Malthus • Population grows faster than food supply • Preventive checks • Positive checks • Cornucopians • Optimistic perspective • Jean Antoine Condorcet • Improvements in production • Lower birth rates with education & prosperity

  20. Demographic Patterns • Normal sex ratio: 105 boys to 100 girls at birth • Higher child mortality among boys, so about even by adulthood • Current sex ratio at birth: 107 boys to 100 girls • Cultural preference for males • New technology • Ultrasound • Amniocentesis

  21. Demographic Patterns • Rich countries: over 60 population = 20% of population • Sustaining growth • Equitably distributing wealth • Facilities for elderly • Medical research on degenerative diseases • Pension plans • Total fertility rates below replacement level • Poor countries also aging • Nutrition • Care of elderly • Pensions

  22. Migration • Push factor • Drive away people • Pull factor • Attract people • Undocumented immigrants • Chain migration

  23. Migration of Peoples • Origin of humanity in Africa (150,000-200,000 years ago) • Asia: 56,000-73,000 years ago • Europe: 39,000-51,000 years ago • Americas? ~50,000 years ago • Races • Genetically 99% the same • Racism: Belief in superiority of one race over another Prehistoric Human Migrations

  24. Migration of Peoples • Europe to Americas • African diaspora • Europe to Asia & Oceania • Europe to Russia • Europe to Australia & New Zealand • Europe to Africa • Indian • Chinese

  25. Migration Today • 2010 = 214 million living outside country of birth • Young, ambitious, hardworking • Contrasting socioeconomic characteristics • Poor, uneducated, unskilled versus • Highly educated & skilled • For rich countries • Population aging, declining • Need for • Labor • Contributions to pension funds

  26. Migration Today • Refugees • No protection until twentieth century • Geneva Convention (1951) definition • Outside home country • Fear of persecution for religious, political, nationality, social group • Asylum: safety in host country • Estimated 10 million (2009) + 22 million “of concern” • Internally displaced persons: Within country of origin • Economic refugees

  27. International Migration • Concerns • In addition to legal immigrants, unknown numbers of undocumented migrants • Immigrants in peak childbearing years • Concentrated in a few places in the host country • Slow assimilation to new country • “Compassion fatigue” • Possible competition for jobs • Force of population growth in poor countries • Workers’ remittances

  28. International Migration • To Europe • 19.5 million non-Europeans in EU (3.9% of EU population) • Problems • Addition of Asians and Africans in population • Many migrants Muslim • Employment • Curtailment of asylum • Increased illegal immigration • Definition of citizenship • Of Asians • 5 million work abroad • Remittances important • Guest workers in oil-rich countries • Restricted immigration to Japan

  29. Migration to the US & Canada • United States • Largest migration flow over last 150 years • 12.5% of U.S. population foreign-born • Legal restrictions • Few legal restrictions until late 19th century • Canada • 20% of population foreign-born • 60% of immigrants from Asia • 90% in metropolitan areas

  30. New Controversies • Brain Drain • Lack of appropriate jobs for educated youth • Desire for political freedom • Foreign graduate education • Additional costs for public services? • Importing poverty? • Local costs of immigration • “Melting pot” or “cultural mosaic”?

  31. End of Chapter 5