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Chapter 9
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  1. Chapter 9 Human Energy Expenditure During Rest and Physical Activity McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  2. Energy Expenditure at Rest • Basal metabolic rate (BMR) • Energy to maintain vital functions in awake state • Resting metabolic rate (RMR) • Energy to maintain vital functions plus digestion • Measured 3 – 4 hours following a meal McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  3. McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  4. Metabolism at Rest • Resting energy metabolism varies in proportion to the body’s surface area • Allometric scaling is used to • Establish a relationship between body size and a variable such as • Muscular strength • Aerobic capacity McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  5. Effects of Regular Exercise • Resistance training increases BMR by increasing FFM. • Endurance training increases BMR without increasing FFM. • Exercise can offset the age-related decline in BMR. McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  6. “Normalcy” of BMR Values • Compares a person’s measured BMR with “standard metabolic rates” based on age and gender McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  7. McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  8. McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  9. Estimating Resting Daily Energy Expenditure RDEE = BMR × m2 • Contribution of diverse tissues • Muscle is more active than fat mass. • The brain has a high metabolic rate. • During exercise, muscle metabolism may increase nearly 100 times. McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  10. Factors that Affect Energy Expenditure • Physical activity • Largest variable in daily energy expenditure • Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) • Obligatory thermogenesis • Facultative thermogenesis McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  11. Factors that Affect Energy Expenditure • Climate • Hot or cold environments increase energy expenditure. • Pregnancy • Increases BMR due to added weight gained during pregnancy McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  12. Energy Expenditure in Physical Activity • Classification of physical activities by energy expenditure • Intensity • Duration • Physical activity ratio (PAR) • Determined by ratio of energy required in relation to BMR • Light work = 1 – 3 × BMR • Heavy work = 6 – 8 × BMR • Maximal work = > 9 × BMR McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  13. The MET MET = metabolic equivalent • 1 MET = 3.5 mL × kg−1× min−1 • Exercise intensity described relative to resting rate • Used toguide or prescribe exercise intensity McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  14. Daily Rates of Average Energy Expenditure • The average U.S. adult spends 75% of the day in activities requiring light energy expenditure. • In the United States, 300,000 deaths per year result from physical inactivity and poor eating habits. McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  15. Energy Cost of Household, Industrial, and Recreational Activities • Effect of body mass • Weight-bearing exercise • Weight-supported exercise McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  16. Heart Rate to Estimate Energy Expenditure • Heart rate and oxygen consumption • Linear relationship exists • Linearity is not identical for everyone • Other factors altering heart rate • Temperature – Humidity • Food intake – Body position • Muscle groups worked – Emotions • Static v. dynamic work McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition

  17. McArdle, Katch, and Katch: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition, and Human Performance, Sixth Edition