World War One – The World • Triple Entente – France, UK, Russia • The Alliance – Germany, Austro-Hungary, Italy • Fought on the Western Front • Trench Warfare with No-Mans Land in between • Second Battle Ypres 1915 Gas • Battle of Somme 1916 Old vs New • Passchendale 1917 “Victory”?
Canada in WW1 • Automatic declaration of War with UK • Total War – whole economy and everybody • Battle of Vimy Ridge 1917 – 1stCanadian victory • Conscription crisis 1917 – Men had to go to war • Quebec did not want to conscript into English War – Voted for Laurier in 1917 election • Robert Borden – Prime Minister
After World War One • Main leaders met at Versailles for Paris Peace Conference • Wilson (US), Clemenceau (Fr) and Lloyd George (UK) • Based on Wilson’s 14 points • Treaty of Versailles- Germany punished – War Guilt Clause – land taken and reparations ($) • League of Nations set up
Canada after World War One – Independent? • Borden fights for and gets own seat at Paris Peace Conference and League of Nations • Chanak Affair – Canada doesn’t fight with UK • Halibut Treaty – 1st treaty signed by Canada as not part of UK 1923 • King - Byng Affair 1926. GG not as powerful after • Imperial Conference and Balfour Declaration which led to: asking for automony • Statute of Westminster – 1931 - Canadian laws decided in Canada not UK; control own F. Policy
Canada in 1920s – progress for some • Winnipeg General Strike 1919. Put down by police because of fear of Red Scare • Roaring 20s and Jazz Age – Good economy and freedom of new ideas • Consumerism – buying cars, entertainment etc. • Suffragette movement for women rights • Person’s Case – women officially people under the law • Group of 7 – Canada’s own art and culture
Canada in 1920s – No progress for others • Residential schools – “take the Indian out of the Indian” • Restricted immigration – Head Tax/ Exclusion Act and limit on Japanese immigration • Women get vote but still limited in professions.
1930s – Boom leads to Bust • 1920s - Laissaz Faire – let it be. Economy will take care of itself • 1929 –Wall Street Crash • Companies overvalued • People Buying on the Margin (borrowing to buy shares) • Leads to Great Depression • Hits everyone but especially countryside • Drought and dustbowl at same time
The Political Reaction • Mackenzie King does nothing – Laissez-Faire • Bennett Elected – copies Roosevelt’s New Deal • CCF-Woodsworth; Social Credit-Aberhart • Opens Relief Camps to get people out of city • People Protest – Onto Ottawa Trek and Regina Riot • Mackenzie King re-elected • Not really solved before World War Two
1930s in the World • Depression everywhere but esp. bad in Germany—elevates Nazi Party • People unhappy at Versailles – called politicians who signed November Criminals • Hitler promised to take back land lost at Versailles, strong nation and work • Rise of Fascism in Germany and Italy (Mussolini)
How did World War Two Happen? • WW1 meant to be ‘the war to end all wars’ • League of Nations meant to solve probs through politics • US didn’t join – not strong enough • Germany and Japan kept breaking rules by invading other countries • Appeasement in Munich • Failed – Germany invaded Czechoslovakia and then Poland
World War Two – Canada showing independence? • Independent Declaration of War – Canada joins war 1 week after UK • BCATP – Canada training UK Air Force • Hyde Park Declaration—US/Canada economic and defense agreement • Total War – Economy organised by govt and CD Howe (effect on post WWII)
World War Two Part One • Germany and Japan make gains • Western front - Germany quickly gets France and tries to attack UK • Eastern Front – Germany can’t invade UK so attacks Russia • Gets as far as Stalingrad – winter 1942/3 • In Pacific – Japan is dominant • December 1941 – attacks US at Pearl Harbour
World War Two Part 2 • Battle of Atlantic – ships from US supplying UK attacked by U-Boats • Dieppe – failed attack on French Coast led by Canadian troops • Canada involved in Ortona (Italy) and in Netherlands (after D-Day) • D-Day 1944 – use Dieppe as lesson and successfully land in France • Eastern Front – Russia starts pushing Germany Back. • Pacific – slowly take back islands • Ended August 1945 – Atomic Bomb
Discrimination in WW2 • Hitler used Jews as common enemy • Discrimination getting worse through 1930s in Germany • Ends in concentration camps and Holocaust • Also anti-Semitism in Canada during 1930s • Japanese Internment – property taken to pay for internment and sent to camps • After war – sent to certain areas or returned to Japan
World After World War Two • Split into two – Cold War • Eastern Europe - Communist – Warsaw Pact- USSR • Western Europe- Democracy – NATO – US • Proxy-Wars fought between US and USSR in other countries – Korea (1950s) Vietnam (1960s and 70s) Afghanistan (1980s) • United Nations formed 1945
Canada in the Cold War • Middle power in UN • Fights with UN Forces under US in Korea • Peacekeeping in Suez • Idea of Lester B Pearson – Canada leading the world • Doesn’t go to Vietnam with US – Pearson upsets LBJ • Debates about how close to US with defence • Agrees to NORAD – Dew, Pinetree and Mid-Canada Line • Avro Arrow and BOMARC missiles
Canada – Own Culture? • Massey Commission sets up CBC TV (1949-51) • CRTC – Certain amount of content has to be Canadian • Baby Boom – lots of kids between 1945 and 1970 • All fighting against Americanisation of Canadian culture • Flag Debate – Maple Leaf design without British Flag mid-1960s
Canada and Quebec – Nation or Nations? • Led by baby boom – lots of young Quebecers • Didn’t like old Quebec politics of Union Nationale led by Duplessis • 3 options • Stronger Quebec in Canada – Jean Lesage (Liberals) • Separate from Canada politically – Rene Levesque (Parti Quebecois) • Separate using force –very few – FLQ • 1960’s – Quiet Revolution – Quebec gets more power in economy and big projects
Quebec - Nation or Nations • October Crisis – FLQ terrorist campaign 1970s • Trudeau (Prime Minister) puts army on streets • FLQ members arrested • Bi and Bi commission – Canada officially bi-Lingual and Bi cultural. Official Languages Act • Bill 101 – French signs in Quebec • 1980 referendum – PQ loses but says “until next time” • 1982 – Constitution crisis • MeechLake and Charlottetown Accords – “distinct society” • 1995 Referendum – just over 50% stay; just over 49% leave Canada
First Natiuons in Canada • White Paper – Trudeau – Multiculturalism and all Canadians not special. 1969 • Red Paper – response asking for FN specific rights like Quebec had • Organise Native political groups in 1960s • Bill C 31 –more self government; 1985 • Nisga'a Treaty – First Nations self government 2000 • Land Claims – Canadian government took too much land after treaties • Oka Crisis – protest at land claim 1990 • Delgamuukw – Land all First Nation unless govt. can prove otherwise 1997 • Residential Schools ended 1982 – official apology 2008
Canada and the Constitution • 1982 – Trudeau patriates Constitution (brings Constitution to Canada) • Charter of Rights and Freedoms • Amending Formula • Notwithstanding Clause – provinces can opt out of parts of Constitution
Canada’s Economic Path • Trudeau’s Just Society and social spending with post-War II Boom challenged by 1970s world economic problems. • Mulroney brings Canada closer to USA economically. Also less spending on social side and lower taxes. Debt still a problem. • Free Trade with USA (1988/89) and NAFTA (1993/4) further open Canada. • Liberals cut down debt in 1990s, but Canada less generous society. • Question still for today: what should Canada be?
After the Cold War – Peacekeeping Myth? • Peacekeeping big Canadian success story • Fails in 1990s • Former Yugoslavia—NATO needed • Rwanda – 800,000 and Dallaire • Somalia—killing of young boy • Do peacekeepers have enough power to stop genocide?