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Canadian History 1201

Canadian History 1201

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Canadian History 1201

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  1. Canadian History 1201 Germany After WW1: A Case Study March 2005

  2. Germany 1919-1933 • Economic Problems….Inflation • Political Instability • Treaty of Versailles • Depression & Unemployment

  3. Economic Problems • Germany borrowed $ to finance WWI instead of taxing citizens. • Following WWI all govt income was going to pay off the debt. • Govt printed $$$ to pay debt even though the economy was not expanding

  4. Economic Problems • Germany borrowed $ to finance WWI instead of taxing citizens. • Following WWI all govt income was used to pay off the debt & reparations. • Govt printed $$$ to pay debt even though the economy was not expanding • Severe inflation occurred

  5. Economic Problems • Spring 1922…300 marks = 1 US dollar • Early 1923…50,000 marks = 1 US dollar • Germans soon needed billions of marks to pay for postage stamps • Wages were often carried home in wheel barrels full of almost worthless paper money

  6. Economic Problems • People began to barter / trade goods/services instead of using money • Paper money dropped in value forcing the German Govt to print paper money (over 300 paper mills working 24 hrs a day) ____________________________________ • Page 193….picture & table

  7. Severe Inflation…bread • The rising price of bread in post-war Germany. • 1918… 0.63 marks • 1922… 163.15 marks • Jan 1923… 250 marks • July 1923… 3,456 marks • Sept 1923… 1,512,000 marks • Nov 1923… 201, 000, 000,000 marks

  8. Severe Inflation…eggs 1914… 0.90marks 1921… 1.60 marks 1922… 7 marks July 1923… 5,000marks Sept1923… 4,000,000 marks Nov 1923… 320,000,000,000 marks

  9. Severe Inflation I went into a café for a coffee. I noticed that the price was 5000 marks, which is roughly what I had in my pocket. I drank my coffee and read the paper. When I asked for the bill, it was 8000 marks. The value of the mark had fallen in the space of one hour! Memories of a German Writer

  10. Severe Inflation Two women were carrying a laundry basket full of banknotes. They put the basket on the ground while they tried to buy something from a shop. When they got back, the money was still there, but the basket had been taken. Memories of a German Writer

  11. http://www.joelscoins.com/exhibger2.htm

  12. Economic Problems • Define inflation -when prices for basic items (food, clothing) increases greatly while wages stay the same. • What was the major economic problem Germany faced after the war? - Inflation • Why did it arise? - German economy did not expand; govt used all financial resources to pay war debt & reparations.

  13. Economic Problems • How did the German Govt respond? -Opened paper mills to print more currency decreasing value of $$$$ • Who would suffer most from inflation? -Workers, middle class, those with savings. Money became worthless to them • Who might benefit from inflation? -govt workers, factories owners

  14. Political Instability • Following WWI, the main political parties in Germany were: • Communists 2. Social Democrats 3. National Socialists (NAZIS)

  15. Political Instability • Refer to page 194 of “Spotlight Canada” for a detailed description the main political parties, their main beliefs and their supporters. • Review/discuss questions 1, 2, 3, & 4

  16. Treaty of Versailles • France 1919 • Ended WWI • Big Three • Germans humiliated, (New territorial boundaries, War Guilt Clause , Reparations)

  17. Versailles…Bad for Germany • Germany lost rich areas of territory to France (coal fields, industry, etc..) • Limited army of 100, 000 men; no air force, submarines, or artillery • Required to pay $5 billion in reparations • Lost colonies to Britain, France & Japan • War Guilt Clause: Germans accepted blame for starting WWI

  18. Depression & Unemployment • Germans were greatly affected by the Great Depression • US consumers were no longer in need of German products • US banks could no longer lend the German govt & businesses money to rebuild from WWI • German businesses went bankrupt & people lost their jobs

  19. Depression & Unemployment • German wages decreased steadily during the Great Depression • Many unemployed barely survived • People became very desperate • 6 million unemployed

  20. Depression & Unemployment Hitler & the Nazi party said……. • “Believe me, our misery will increase! The government itself is the biggest swindler & crook. People are starving on millions of marks! We will no longer submit!. We want a dictatorship.”