Unit One Change
Society • Society- A system where individuals and social organizations performing a variety of roles interrelate with each other according to a set of mutual expectations and in ways controlled by the social and natural environment
Examples of Aspects of Society • Role of government • System of education • Democratic freedoms • Role of service groups • Behavioural expectations
World View • A description of reality providing “natural and believable” knowledge which is generally accepted by members of a cultural group to help them meet their needs, create order and coherence, and provide a basis for predictions. How a specific group thinks “the way things should be”
Criteria for World View • Spiritual Beliefs- defining the meaning and purpose of existence • Moral Beliefs- about peoples right and obligations • Social Beliefs- about the organization of individuals into society • Intellectual Beliefs- about determining the truth and beauty • Economic Beliefs- how Wealth is created and distributed
Economic Beliefs- how Wealth is created and distributed • Political Beliefs- about making and enforcing decisions within society • What Shapes World View? • Will some of us in this room share differing world views? • Is that a good or bad thing?
Social Contract • An agreement between the members of a group which explicitly defines the rights and obligations of each member. The social contract also defines the rights and duties of the rulers and the ruled. • What do we have in Canada which serves as our Social Contract? • Has the Social Contract between teachers and students changed in the past 20 years?
Social Change • Societies adjust to patterns of reality in ways that seem reasonable at the time • Over time realities change making it necessary for society • Society may not choose to respond to change until more change forces society to deal with it
Steps for Change • 1. Denial • 2. Acknowledgement • 3. Acceptance • 4. Defence
Criteria • Are rules or standards which are accepted and used to provide a consistent basis for making judgements. • What grounds do we use for making judgements?
Dialectical Evaluation • Is the process of • Defining relevant viewpoints within the information • Testing the viewpoint for factual accuracy • Testing the viewpoints for morality • Evaluating the factual and moral testing • Forming your own conclusion about the issues
Legitimacy • Legitimacy in making and enforcing decisions is based on people’s belief that ; • Decision makers have the necessary authority based on criteria such as tradition, morality, consensus, majority rule, position within a group or status • The decisions are being made are legitimate according to the prevailing criteria / values of the society’s worldview • All members of society have an obligation to accept and obey legitimate decisions even if they don’t agree with them
Implementing change in a Democratic Society • Burden of Proof • The assumptions made about who should be required too prove that a position is correct and who should be given the benefit of the doubt • How do we do this in our Society? • In all decision making there is a measure of uncertainty about the consequences and costs associated with the decisions
3 Moral Tests • New Case Test- How does this set a precedent? • Role Exchange – Apply to both parties • Universal Consequences
Exploration of North America • By the 17th century countries such as Russia, Spain, Portugal, France and Britain had all explored Canada • Britain and France had the largest impact on Canada
The French Foundation • New France had two distinctive forms of government • Government under the 100 Chartered Associates (wealthy French Merchants 1627) • Royal Government (1663) New France was run a colony of France controlled by the King
The Features of the Fur Trade • The explosion in popularity of the beaver pelt spurred on the exploration of North America • Early Settlement took place along the St. Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers • Settlements were established along the northern St. Lawrence • As demand for beaver furs for coats and hats increased during the mid 18th century these areas became trapped out of beaver
Inland routes became necessary to help provide enough pelts • This was dangerous as many ships were raided or sunk on their way back to France • In 1627 the King of France Louis XIV granted a charter to a group known as the 100 Associates • It was believed that New France would not succeed unless a monopoly was given to allow less competition and more profit
The 100 Associates were in the North America for one reason only-profit from Fur • They were not interested in diversifying the economy or promoting agriculture which is what the King wanted • In 1608 Samuel de Champlain established a permanent settlement at what is today Quebec City where the monopoly was controlled from
French traders would trade manufactured goods with the First Nations in return for beaver pelts • The French became allied with the Algonquin and Huron peoples around Lake Ontario • The Fur Trade had a huge impact on the First Nations people. They had always been self reliant, living off the land as they needed
The fur trade changed the focus of day to day living as the men now spent most of their time hunting beaver which they would trade for European goods • Diseases also wiped out huge portions of their population base.
Questions • Why was the expansion of the fur trade important • The King of France gave the 100 Associates a Charter in 1627. What responsibilities did these wealthy merchants have? What did the King get in return? • How did Charles L’Allemant see the monopoly as a bad thing? List • What impact did the Fur Trade have on First Nations people of Eastern Canada?
Phases of the fur trade • The French depend on the Huron, Algonquin, and Iroquin nations to act as middlemen to bring the furs to the trading posts • The Huron and Iroquois are in competition for these furs and often fought over them • The Iroquois became unhappy with the French and begin attacking them instead of trading and eventually ally with the British
The English and Dutch are established in what is today New York state • These conflicts lead the 100 Associates to lose profits • Eventually in 1652 the Iroquois stop the flow of all fur into Quebec and they attack the Huron and kill the French missionaries. • The King is unhappy with 100 Associates as they are not making money and the colony is not doing well. • He sends in French troops in 1663 and establishes Royal control over the colony
Questions • Why did Champlain form an alliance with the Huron as opposed to the Iroquois? • What is the Royal Governments? Why was it established and was it successful? • With the development of peace with the Iroquois & France and the death of the Huron what two problems developed.
French/ British Contact • In 1670 King Charles II granted all the rivers draining into the Hudson Bay to an English Company • The French now had competition to the North (English) and the south (Dutch)
The French then led a series of raids headed up by Pierre de Iberville against HBC posts from 1686-1697 • This increased tensions in the New World between the two Old World rivals • The start of the 18th century saw a new problem appear for the French. They did not have enough First Nations to serve as middlemen, damaging the efficiency of the Fur Trade. • A new group of middlemen emerged the Coureurs de Bois
The Coureurs de Bois (Runner of the Woods) were French adventurers who were seen as celebrities in France for their daring, and they were very well compensated for the work they did. • This caused problems for France because instead of young men settling New France and becoming farmers they were taking off into the wilderness in search of their fortune.
With the British controlling to the North and South of New France, the French attempted to build new trading posts/forts in the interior bringing them in direct confrontation with the British • This led to battles which spread the French even thinner and unable to protect its assets
Exploration of North America • Europeans were motivated by three main things which led to the exploration and settlement of North America • God- The desire to convert people to their religion • Gold- the quest to acquire as much wealth as possible through colonization • Glory- the desire to bring glory to their country and excitement of the adventure
Development of an Empire • By the mid 18th century France controlled much of North America • They were aided in their exploration by their proximity of the Great Lakes which connected them to much of Canada • Conversely the British were hemmed in along the Eastern Seaboard by the Appalachian Mountains. • The fur trade and missionary worked changed the goal from looking for a route to the orient to settling the new world.
The Fall of New France • By the 1680’s the British had replaced the Dutch as the powerhouse in the Ohio Valley and southern St. Lawrence • From 1680 to 1759 the French and British continued to battle for control of the New World • In the 1720’s France started to build the fortress Louisbourg on the northern tip of Cape Breton Island
It was to serve as the “Gibraltar of North America” as any ships looking to enter the St. Lawrence seaway had to sail past, as well it was an easy sail to try and intercept British ships headed for the 13 colonies
In response to the French fort the British settled Halifax in 1749 and Fort Anne in Annapolis Royal. • In 1755 the British who controlled the area of the Maritimes known as Acadia shipped all of the French residents (Acadians) to the 13 colonies • In 1756 the Seven Years War began which led the British to invade the Fortress • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qkxlTtEWyjU
This was part of the “Three Pronged Attack by the British” as they also attacked French settlements at Lake Champlain before turning their sights on Quebec
Plains of Abraham • In 1759 the British are victorious at the Plains of Abraham ending 150 years of French rule in Quebec • At the conclusion of the Seven Years War in 1763 the Treaty of Paris gives the British control over all French territory in the New World. • This is a significant moment in Canadian history http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D4eVwzZ9a_A
When Wolfe recovers from his illness, the situation is much improved but critical. Montcalm detaches 800 infantry to aid the outnumbered French commander La Corne in Montreal and 3,000 infantry are chasing shadows further and further west of Quebec as a result of aggressive British raids on the coast. Montcalm’s subordinates assure him that the 100 infantry left behind to guard Anse de Foulon are enough to sufficiently delay or even prevent any landing. Wolfe’s main base is established just east of the Montmorency River; there are also forces posted across the St. Lawrence River at Point Levis and Isle de Orleans. Saunders’ fleet is divided in order to completely blockade the river of French ships and supplies. Montcalm’s main base is established at Beauport; there are also forcesposted all along the north side of the St. Lawrence River to prevent any British landing which could subsequently threaten Quebec by land. Wolfe recognizes the attack to be unsuccessful and orders a hasty evacuation. The evacuation can not be hampered in any way by Montcalm due to the damp gunpowder. This costly, abortive attack drives Wolfe into bitterness and despair, eventually contributing to incapacitating physical illness. Wolfe holds an uncharacteristic council of war which his subordinates use to convince him to abandon his various plans for a second attack on Beauport. Wolfe does so and moves his base to Point Levis and Isle de Orleans in preparation for a landing at Anse de Foulon, recently scouted by his subordinates. Montcalm is relieved – thinking Wolfe is withdrawing altogether – but remains alert. Wolfe has plenty of time to establish his force on the Plains of Abraham west of Quebec. Montcalm however has no time to recall the detachment far west of Quebec and his Beauport forces are moving slowly towards the heights. French (Marquis de Montcalm) 13,000 infantry French (Montcalm) Beauport Beauport Montmorency River Montmorency River St. Charles River St. Charles River Plains of Abraham Quebec Quebec Anse de Foulon British (James Wolfe) 9,000 infantry (Charles Saunders) 22 ships of the line Isle de Orleans Isle de Orleans Point Levis Point Levis Landmarks British (Wolfe)
Both sides are leaderless at this point although Townshend and Vaudreuil assume loose command of the British and French respectively. Vaudreuil orders the Quebec garrison to hold out until the city is taken by assault or food runs short. Food runs short much more quickly than imagined; as Townshend begins to get the heavy artillery and ships of the line in position, the French surrender Quebec. This occurs just before the French relief force comes within sight of the city. Wolfe deploys his force in two lines with a small flank guard and reserve. Montcalm deploys his force in two lines with Canadian skirmishing parties on his flanks and no reserve. Montcalm’s Canadian skirmishers harass Wolfe’s flanks along the forest/cliff lines, forcing the British to lie in prone position for cover. Montcalm resolves to launch a decisive frontal attack and reins in these skirmishers. The French advance steadily, halting 130 yards from the British to fire a volley before continuing a progressively untidy advance. Wolfe’s orders that no shot be fired until the French are within 40 yards are being strictly followed. When the French do wade into this range, they are struck by a rapid volley which, to them, sounds like a single cannon shot; the French are utterly defeated and stunned. Wolfe and Montcalm are both mortally wounded as the British pursue the French from the battlefield. Effective rearguard actions by Canadian skirmishers and French regulars prevent the defeat from becoming a disaster. Wolfe’s subordinates also do not care to risk any sort of reverse after already winning the battle so rather than aggressively pursuing the French, they settle in to besiege Quebec. British (James Wolfe) 4,500 regulars French (Montcalm) French (Marquis de Montcalm) 2,000 regulars 2,500 militia/natives British (Wolfe)
Royal Proclamation • Put forth at the conclusion of the Seven Years War • One of the most important documents in the history of Canada • Had three main points • Boundaries of Quebec would be set along the St. Lawrence River
2. Territories beyond the Appalachian Mountains were not open to settlers or traders until peace was made with the First Nations of the area 3. The colonies in British North America were made into a group of separate, self-contained units: Acadia, Quebec, and the thirteen colonies, each would work on its own.
Government in ColoniesAfter the Royal Proclamation • Governor (Has Total Power in Colony, appointed by the crown) • Executive Council (British Citizens only and appointed by the Governor ) • Citizens had little say in Gov’t • The French had none as they were Catholic
Quebec Act • Governor Sir Guy Carleton was appointed to lead Quebec in 1766 • His main job was to secure the loyalty of the newly conquered French • Many merchants from the 13 colonies were coming to Quebec hoping to receive cheap land, power and influence • Initially, Carleton sided with the merchants but eventually came to see that if Quebec was to survive it would need the Canadians
He believed that the 13 colonies were on the verge of revolt (They were) and did not want Quebec to join them • Canadians were required to make the fur trade work as no one else was tough enough to survive the climate • A loyal Canadian population would help if there were any further Anglo/France conflicts in the future. • So Carleton lobbied to have legislation passed that would bring the Canadians on their side
Quebec Act of 1774 • The French Catholic Canadians received the following: • Recognition of the Catholic Church • Minority Representation on the Executive Council • French Civil Law code retained • Seignerurial System retained • Borders of the Province extended south