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Diseases of the Respiratory System

Diseases of the Respiratory System

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Diseases of the Respiratory System

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  1. Diseases of the Respiratory System Casey Conway Jeannie Stall, R.V.T. Credits: Clip art/ Alleice Summers

  2. Diseases of the Upper Resp. Tract Rhinitis Nasal tumors Epistaxis Sinusitis Tonsillitis Laryngitis Upper airway Dz not as common in dogs and cats as in humans

  3. Infectious Canine Tracheobronchitis“Kennel Cough” A collection of viruses, bact, fungi, mycoplasmas, parasites – (K-9 parainfluenza virus, K-9 herpesvirus, Bordetellabronchiseptica Exposure to other animals, kennel, groom, hospital Dry, hacking cough – otherwise normal Cough on tracheal palpation Antibiotics, antitussives, glucocorticoids, vaccination can reduce severity of disease Self-limiting – can take 2-3+ wks to resolve Prevent with vaccine!!!

  4. Feline Bordetella Infection Attacks ciliated resp mucosa, release toxins Usually self-limiting, but can be fatal in kittens Fever, sneezing, nasal discharge, coughing Antibiotics Symptoms resemble resp viral infections Vaccine is available

  5. Collapsing Trachea Cause is not entirely known, usually seen in middle age to old, obese and toy breeds but can be seen in young animals Tracheal rings lose their ability to remain firm, collapse during respiration Harsh, dry, “goose honk” cough, worse on exercise, excitement or when pulling on collar Tracheal palpation, x-rays, ultrasound Tx depends on case – acute (sedatives, steroids), chronic (antitussives, steroids) Surgical repair – complications Lifelong management, harness, reduce wt, monitor CHF if develops

  6. Collapsing Trachea

  7. Feline Asthma Spontaneous bronchoconstriction, airway inflammation, airway hyperreactivity Coughing, wheezing, labored breathing, lethargy No PE findings are diagnostic Clinical signs and history help establish Dx X-rays High-dose long term corticosteroid therapy, bronchodilators, nebulizers and inhalers Prognosis is variable, cure is usually not possible

  8. Feline Asthma

  9. Feline Heartworm Disease • Less common than in dogs • More severe symptoms despite smaller burden • Dx difficult (need antibody and antigen test with clinical signs) • No microfilaria in cats • Symptoms • Cough • Dyspnea • Weight loss • Vomiting • lethargy

  10. Feline Heartworm Disease • Best treatment is prevention • No tx

  11. Feline Viral Respiratory Diseases • Feline Viral Rhinotracheitis-Herpes virus Highly contagious: sneezing,grooming, bowls, toys, bedding … Clin.signs: nasal ulcers, fever, anorexia, conjuctivitis • Calicivirus: Highly contagious, hardy virus/oral ulcers, pneumonia, diarrhea • Vaccines available for both

  12. PLEURAL EFFUSION • Fluid build-up in pleural space creates resp. distress, cough, dyspnea, circulatory compromise Causes: Congestive heart failure, tumors Transudate < 2.5 TP / Exudate > 2.5 TP Trt: Treat underlying cause Thoracocentesis @ 7-8thintercostal

  13. Fungal Diseases • Inhalation of spores or wound contamination • Spores release enzymes that kill, digest and invade surrounding cells • Common • Blastomycosis • Coccidioiomycosis • Histoplasmosis • Aspergillosis

  14. Blastomycosis • Three clinical forms • Primary pulmonary infections • Disseminated disease • Local cutaneous infections • Incubation period 5-12 weeks • Symptoms • Anorexia • Depression • Fever > 103 F • Cough, dyspnea • Ocular and nasal discharge

  15. Blastomycosis • Treatment • Amphotericin B • Usually not zoonotic (unless draining wounds) • Owners are likely to be exposed to the same fungal spores as their pets however • Relapses common

  16. Coccidioidomycosis • Young, male dogs most infected • Signs • Mild, non-productive cough • Low grade fever • Anorexia • Tx • Ketoconazole • Itraconazole • Relapses common (may need lifelong tx to keep pet in remission)

  17. Histoplasmosis • Inhalation most common route via soil or bird/ bat droppings • Incubation 12-16 days • Can also affect the GI tract • Symptoms • Weight loss • Fever • Pale mm • +/- dyspnea • Diarrhea (dogs) • Cough (dogs) • Tx • Ketoconazole • Itraconazole

  18. Cryptococcosis • Budding yeast surrounded by a mucoid capsule- Via inhalation • Organisms commonly grow in avian excreta (especially pigeons) • Symptoms • Nasal cavity and sinus lesions • Chronic nasal discharge • +/- fever • Weight loss • CNS problems • Tx • Amphotericin B • Ketaconazole • Itraconazole

  19. Aspergillosis • Decaying veggies, sewage, compost piles, moldy seeds and grains • Opportunistic fungus • Feline disease uncommon • Canine disease • Young to middle age • Sneezing • Facial pain • Generalized infection usually seen in German Shepherds • Tx-topical clotrimazole via nasal catheters

  20. PULMONARY NEOPLASMS • Primary lung tumors-uncommon/70-80% adenocarcinomas/ Metastasize to L. nodes, long bones, heart, brain, eye • Multicentric lymphoma & Metastatic- most often-via thyroid & mamm.glands • 9 to 12 yr. old dogs • Trt: Sx. when possible/ chemo +/-

  21. Equine Resp. Issues • Epiglottic Entrapment: Pharynx tissue traps epiglottis, restricting airway • Primarily in: Standardbreds/Thoroughbreds • Signs: Coughing, respiratory noise, poor performance ( no AIR!!) • Trt: Do nothing or Surgery

  22. EPISTAXIS • Nosebleeds d/t tumors, trauma, infections, abscesses, exercise-induced • Trt: Treat underlying cause ie: tumor

  23. STRANGLES • Highly contagious Streptococcus equi via inhalation of aerosolized particles • Fever, thick creamy yellow nasal discharge, anorexic, enlarged L. nodes • Trt: Lance abscesses, Rx Penicillin if no abscesses present • Vaccination to prevent/reduce severity

  24. HEAVES • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Dz. • Allergic issue d/t dry, dusty environment • Airway constriction, inflammation, reduced alveoli elasticity • Cough,wheeze, crackles, increased resp. expiration effort • Trt: steroids, bronchodiltors, soak dry feeds, change environment

  25. EQUINE INFLUENZA • Debilitating resp. viral dz. caused by myxovirus Stressed animals more susseptible Fever, coughing, lethargy, anorxia, nasal discharge Trt: REST & antibiotics Short-lived vx. available @ 4 x / year

  26. EQUINE VIRAL RHINOPNEUMONITIS • Most common viral resp. dz. in horses (also reproductive & neurologic forms ) -equine herpesvirus Primarily : 2 yrs. of age or younger Nasal discharge, mid-late term abortions Trt: REST & supportive care Vaccinate twice yearly to prevent it

  27. Sheep & Goat Resp. Issues • OestrusOvis: Fly larvae @ nostrils migrate into nasal cavity and sinuses. Fall out & pupate on ground Signs: sinusitis, shaking head, rubbing nose, nasal discharge Trt: Ivermectin

  28. PASTEURELLOSIS • Pasteurellahaemolytica bacteria • Life threatening pneumonia, nasal discharge, fever, anorexia, sudden death, wt. loss • Normal bacteria that take advantage of stressed/immunocompromised animal • Trt: Oxytetracycline/ Sulfonamides • Vx. with Bovine Resp. Complex vx.

  29. EPISTAXIS (BLEEDING FROM NARES / NOSE )

  30. CREDITS • Photos and Clip Art compliments of : Microsoft Clip Art & Google Images