Respiratory System Diseases HCT II
Asthma • Respiratory disease usually caused by a sensitivity to an allergen • Dust • Pollen • Animals • Food
Asthma Symptoms • Occurs when bronchospasms narrow openings of bronchioles, Mucus production increases, edema develops in the mucosal lining • Dyspnea and wheezing • Tightness in the chest • Coughing with expectoration of sputum • Tightness in the chest
Asthma Treatment Bronchodilators Epinephrine Anti-inflammatory medications Oxygen therapy Identification and elimination of allergies
Acute Bronchitis • Usually caused by an infection’ • Characterized by: • A productive cough (last 3-4 weeks) • Dyspnea • Fever • Chest pain • Treated with antibiotics and cough expectorants
Chronic Bronchitis • Occurs after frequent attacks of acute bronchitis and long term exposure to pollutants or smoking • Characterized by: • Chronic inflammation • Damaged cilia • Enlarged mucous glands
Chronic Bronchitis Symptoms • A productive cough • Wheezing • Dyspnea (painful breathing) • Chest pain • Prolonged expiration of air • Treatment (no cure) • Antibiotics • Respiratory therapy • bronchodilators
Emphysema • Noninfectious chronic respiratory disease • Occurs when the walls of the alveoli deteriorate and lose their elasticity • Carbon dioxide remains trapped in the alveoli • Poor exchange of gases • Causes • Heavy smoking • Prolonged exposure to pollutants
Emphysema Symptoms • Dyspnea • Feeling of suffocation • Pain and a barrel chest • Chronic cough • Cyanosis • Rapid respirations • Eventual respiratory failure & Death
Emphysema Treatment • Treatment but no cure • Avoid smoking • Quit smoking after diagnosis • Bronchodilators • Prompt treatment of respiratory infections • Oxygen therapy • Respiratory therapy
Laryngitis • Inflammation of the vocal cords • Frequently occurs with respiratory infections • Symptoms • Hoarseness • Sore throat • Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) • Treatment • Limit use of voice • Medications if an infection is present • Rest and fluids
Pleurisy • Inflammation of pleura or membranes of the lungs • Usually occurs with pneumonia or other infections • Symptoms: • Sharp stabbing pain with breathing • Crepitation or grating sounds in the lungs • Dyspnea and fever
Pleurisy treatment • Rest • Medications to relieve pain and inflammation • If fluid collects in the pleural space a thoracentesis (removal of fluid through a needle) is done to remove fluid and prevent compression of the lungs
Pneumonia • Inflammation or infection of the lungs with a buildup of fluid or exudate in the alveoli • Usually caused by bacteria, virus or chemicals • Symptoms • Fever • Chills • Chest pain • Productive cough • Fever • Dyspnea • Fatigue
Pneumonia Treatment • Bed rest • Fluids • Antibiotics (if bacterial) • Respiratory therapy • Pain medication • Bronchodilators • Often diagnosed as bronchitis first. Chest x-rays assist with the diagnosis.
You likely will not have to go to the hospital unless you: • Are older than 65. • Have other health problems, such as COPD, heart failure, asthma, diabetes, long-term (chronic) kidney failure, or chronic liver disease. • Cannot care for yourself or would not be able to tell anyone if your symptoms got worse. • Have severe illness that reduces the amount of oxygen getting to your tissues. • Have chest pain caused by inflammation of the lining of the lung (pleurisy) so you are not able to cough up mucus effectively and clear your lungs. • Are being treated outside a hospital and are not getting better (such as your shortness of breath not improving). • Are not able to eat or keep food down, so you need to take fluids through a vein (intravenous).
Tuberculosis (TB) • Infectious disease of the lungs caused by • Bacteria (mycobacterium tuberculosis) • At times white blood cells surround the TB organism • Wall them off, creating a nodule called a tubercle • Organisms remain dormant in the tubercle • Can later become active tuberculosis is body immune system is lowered.
Symptoms of TB Fatigue and chest pain Fever and night sweats Weight loss Hemoptysis or coughing up blood tinged sputum
Treatment of TB • Administration of drugs for one or more years to destroy bacteria • Good nutrition and rest • In recent years a new strain of TB bacteria has been diagnosed and is resistant to drug therapy. This has created a concern that TB will become a widespread infectious disease.
LUNG CANCER • Leading cause of death in both men and women • This can be a preventable disease, since the main cause is exposure to carcinogens in tobacco. • Smoking • Second hand smoke
Three common types of lung cancer • Small cell • Squamous cell • Adenocarcinoma
Symptoms of Lung Cancer • None in early stages • Hemoptysis (coughing up blood-tinged sputum) • Dyspnea • Fatigue • Weight loss
Prognosis and Treatment • Prognosis is poor because the disease is usually advanced before it is found. • Treatment: • Surgical removal • Radiation • Chemotherapy.
Questions to Answer • Find the worksheet under Anatomy and Physiology worksheets and answer the following questions. • All assignments are due Monday 3/18/13