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Launching a New Republic

Launching a New Republic. Chapter 9. Chapter 9 : The new Nation Washington’s Presidency . Reading . Workbook ( Blue book) Page 93 DEVELOPMENT OF GOVERNMENT. Constitution. Constitution = Plan of government 3 branches Congress ( Legislative branch) use plan to organize the new government.

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Launching a New Republic

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  1. Launching a New Republic Chapter 9

  2. Chapter 9 : The new NationWashington’s Presidency

  3. Reading • Workbook ( Blue book) Page 93 DEVELOPMENT OF GOVERNMENT

  4. Constitution • Constitution = Plan of government • 3 branches • Congress ( Legislative branch) use plan to organize the new government. • Executive branch • Judicial branch

  5. Washington takes OfficeExecutive Branch • 1st President • Inaugurated (sworn in as President) • Every action Washington does is setting a precedent (example) that would become the standard

  6. Washington leads a new nation • Washington elected unanimously by electoral college to be 1st President • Precedents • Cabinet – advisors (Executive branch) • Judiciary Act – Judicial branch ( federal courts) • Neutrality

  7. Executive BranchCabinet • Congress & President created departments to help the President • The_________ appoints the HEAD of the department President’s cabinet • Appointments must be approved by ________ • Helped solve issues and problems • Set an example for future Presidents

  8. Executive Branch • 1st President: Washington • Vice-President: John Adams • Cabinet • Secretary of War: Defense of the nation • Henry Knox • Secretary of State: Relations with foreign nations • Thomas Jefferson • Secretary of Treasury: Money & budget • Alexander Hamilton - Attorney General : Edmund Randolph ( legal advice) • Why having a cabinet is important? ( Own words)

  9. Cabinet Then… and now! 1789 Now a day 15 departments HW: Visit the website of the executive branch of our national government, www.whitehouse.gov or Wikipedia(Cabinet of the United States) Find a list of the 15 cabinet positions and the functions of each ( department) Explain which department you think is the most necessary or important and why. • 4 departments • Department of State • Department of Treasury • Department of War • Attorney general

  10. Judicial BranchSetting up Courts • Setting Up The Courts • The writers – the Constitution had left many matters to be decided by Congress. • Congress made the Federal Judiciary Act of 1789: • Supreme court had 6 members ( 1 chief of Justice + 5 justices) • Provided for less powerful federal courts ( 2 additional to Supreme Court • Federal District Court • Court of Appeals • Named John Jay the Chief Justice Had a Supreme Court, but they needed justices

  11. Economic Problems • War debts • U.S. had borrowed millions (Internal & External) • 1789 – National Debt was $52 million! • Secretary of Treasury – Alexander Hamilton needed to come up with a financial plan

  12. Reading • Workbook ( Blue book) Page 94 Economics

  13. Hamilton’s Financial Plan • 1. Payoff war debts • 2. Raise Government Revenues (taxes) • 3. Create a National Bank

  14. 1. Paying off all war debts • Sectionalism ( Sectional differences) • Northern VS Southern states • South most already paid their debts / asked to help pay for Northern states debts • Compromise: South will support plan and will help, but National Capital will be move more South • From NY to Washington DC ( between Virginia & Maryland)

  15. 2. Raising government revenues • Secretary of Treasury – In charge of finances • profit through tariffs • Tariffs – Taxes on imported goods • Placed high taxes on foreign goods • Two purposes for taxes • Raise money for gov’t • Encourage growth for the American Industry • Wanted people to buy American goods

  16. 3. National Bank • Hamilton wanted a National Bank(Strong National Government) • Safe place to keep money • Give loans to businesses and government • Paper money  Currency for the nation • Thought it was “necessary & proper” to carry out the government duties

  17. Reading • Workbook ( Blue book) Page 94 Interpreting the Constitution

  18. Opposed the National Bank • James Madison & Thomas Jefferson • Didn’t think we needed a National Bank • Constitution didn’t give power to the government to set up a National Bank

  19. Interpreting the Constitution • Different interpretations of the Constitution caused disagreements • Strict Interpretation – Thomas Jefferson & James Madison • Loose Interpretation- Alexander Hamilton • Showed signs of different views and ideas of how country should be ran

  20. Strict vs. Loose Strict Construction Only what is written in the Constitution Loose Construction Flexible/ open to interpretation Alexander Hamilton Elastic Clause “Necessary & Proper” Thought the National Bank was Necessary to carry out government duties • Jefferson/ Madison • Constitution did not give the power to set up a National Bank • Government only has powers Constitution CLEARLY says • Didn’t want to give the National government too much power

  21. Process Process: Interpreting the ConstitutionStrict vs. LooseFederalists vs. Democratic- Republicans • Strict Interpretation: • Who was for it? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ • What was their interpretation? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ • Loose Interpretation: • Who was for it? _____________________________________________________________________________________________ • What was their interpretation? __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Are you for a strict or loose interpretation of the Constitution? Why? • ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  22. Think – Pair- Share Have you ever felt like you were in the middle of a disagreement between two other people? What to do?

  23. Development of Political parties Page 304 text book /97Blue book • Differences between Hamilton & Jefferson led to the emergence of two political parties • Political party = group of people who try to promote ideas and influence the government • Washington wanted America to stay neutral

  24. Development of Political Parties – From the differences of Hamilton & Jefferson Definition of Political Parties _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  25. Hamilton VS Jefferson Hamilton • Loose interpretation of Constitution • Strong National Gov. • Wealthy & Educated • Manufacture & Industry • National Bank • Favored Tariffs Jefferson • Strict interpretation of Constitution • Strong States’ Gov. • Common People • Agrarian economy – agriculture/ farming • Opposed national Bank • Favored Free Trade

  26. Debate Federalists vs. Democratic- Republicans You are alive during the 18th century and the country has been divided into two different political parties. The two political parties are Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans. You must choose a political party to be a part of. Using your textbook pick a side you believe in and write three reasons why you support that specific group. We will be having a class debate at the end of this activity. I choose to be a part of the _____________________ party. The reasons why I believe they are right are: 1.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 2.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3.________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

  27. Challenges tothe New Government • Securing the NW Territory • Whiskey Rebellion • French Revolution • Staying Neutral- Jay’s Treaty/ Pinckney’s Treaty

  28. Worksheet • Individual work • Class Discussion Reading Comprehension Summarization Visual Representations

  29. Challenges to the New GovernmentInternal Problems Problems with Native Americans Cause: Land in Northwest Territory / Battle of Fallen Timbers Effect: Greenville Treaty – Native Americans lost land Problems with Farmers Cause: Taxes on Whiskey Effect: Whiskey Rebellion & reaction of national government – controlling the situation

  30. Problems with Foreign Nations Who? USA VS Britain Problem? • Britain still have military forts on American Territory • Attack of American Ships & Impressment Solution? Jays’ Treaty

  31. Problems with Foreign Nations Who? USA VS Spain Problem? • Border dispute between US & Florida ( Spain) • Spain closed New Orleans Port & access to Mississippi River – hurt American economy Solution? Pinckney’s Treaty Pinckney’s Treaty

  32. Washington’s Farewell Address • Washington’s Last Speech as President • Retiring – say good bye & Warned nation • Against political parties • Against permanent alliances with Foreign nations • Recommend • Stay Neutral • National Unity

  33. Chapter 9 : The new Nation

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