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Launching a New Republic

Launching a New Republic. Washington ’ s Presidency. Objectives:. To explain how the nation ’ s court system was established. To describe the first cabinet. To analyze Hamilton ’ s financial plans.

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Launching a New Republic

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  1. Launching a New Republic

  2. Washington’s Presidency

  3. Objectives: • To explain how the nation’s court system was established. • To describe the first cabinet. • To analyze Hamilton’s financial plans. • To identify interpretations of the Constitution and explain how they influenced attitudes toward the national bank.

  4. Republican Form of Government • Republic- people elect representatives to make decisions for them. • Democratic-people are allowed to vote • Democratic-Republic- People (many as possible) (extending the voting rights) to vote and elect representatives to make decisions for them.

  5. George Washington is elected. • Electoral College selects the President! • Wrote down two names • Top vote-getter would be President. • Runner-up would be Vice-President (J. Adams) • Washington was inaugurated (sworn into office) on April 30,1789 at the Federal Hall in New York City (national capital). • Washington’s actions would set a precedent for all other Presidents. (a way to behave) • “Mr. President” • Presidents don’t go to Congress to debate legislation.

  6. Setting Up the Courts! • Congress passed the Federal Judiciary Act (law) of 1789. • Supreme Court would have six members. • Five judges and one Chief Justice (head judge). • Washington appointed John Jay as Chief Justice. • Created lower, less powerful federal courts.

  7. Checks and Balances Washington appointed John Jay as Chief Justice Federal Judiciary Act of 1789 Congress makes the new bill or legislation! President nominates judges, ambassadors, cabinet members and other positions. A bill or legislation only becomes a law when the President signs it. Senate must confirm the President’s appointments.

  8. George Washington’s Cabinet • A cabinet is a group of people that gives advice to the president. • Secretary of War-Henry Knox • Secretary of State-(deal with foreign affairs) Thomas Jefferson • Secretary of the Treasury-Alexander Hamilton • Attorney General-(National Lawyer) Edmond Randolph

  9. Washington as President Faced Domestic (Home) and International (Foreign) Issues

  10. Economic Problems $$$$$$ • Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton faced these problems. • Domestic Issue • Huge war (American Revolution) debts we need to pay. • 1789-National Debt was over $52 million dollars • Individuals (soldiers) • Countries (France) • How will other countries view America if we don’t pay off these debts?

  11. Alexander Hamilton's Financial Plan • In 1790, he introduced his three point plan to Congress. • Pay off all war debts (National and State) • Raise government revenues ($ from taxes) • Create a national bank

  12. Hamilton wants to also pay off the state debts. • Problem (Sectional or Regional) • Issue (South already paid off their debts, North hadn’t.) Regional) • Compromise: Capital would be in the south. • Built on the border of Maryland and Virginia along the Potomac River.

  13. Alexander Hamilton's Financial Plan • Tariffs (taxes) on imported (sent into the country) goods. • Raise government revenues $$$ • Encourage the support of American industries (manufacturing) (Buy American) Protective Tariff Helps the North- • Create a National Bank • Safe place to store money. • Make loans to businesses and government. • It would issue bank notes (paper money)

  14. Interpreting the Constitution • Strict Construction (Word for Word) • James Madison and Thomas Jefferson argued that the Constitution did not give the government power to establish a bank. • Loose Construction (Read between the Lines) (broad or flexible). • Alexander Hamilton argued that the “necessary and proper clause” gave the government the right to carry its duties. • Hamilton won the argument.

  15. Note Questions When was Washington’s Presidency? (What Years) How did political parties begin during Washington’s Presidency? Who were to members of Washington’s Cabinet and what were their offices? What law set up the court system?

  16. Challenges to the New Government Domestic and Foreign Affairs

  17. Objectives: • To explain why Washington wanted to secure the Trans-Appalachian West • To analyze the causes and outcome of the Battle of Fallen Timbers • To identify the reasons for the Whiskey Rebellion • To explain how Washington maintained U.S. neutrality

  18. Securing the Northwest Territory • Trans-Appalachian West • Area between the Mississippi and the Appalachian Mountains. • Many nations claimed this area • Spain • Controlled the port of New Orleans at the mouth of the Mississippi (Controlled Trade) • Great Britain • Still held forts in the NW Territory (In violation of the Treaty of Paris) • United States • Native Americans • Attacked settlers with the support of the British

  19. Mississippi River and the Port of New Orleans

  20. Battle of Fallen Timbers • Background- Encouraged by the British (guns, gunpowder, supplies) Native Americans are attacking the settlers in the NW Territory. Other American militias and the army had failed to stop the Native Americans. • August 20, 1794 • U.S vs. Native Americans • General “Mad” Anthony Wayne fought Chief Little Turtle • Two thousand Native Americans and two thousand U.S. soldiers and militia fought in an area that had recently been hit by a tornado. • The Native Americans retreated and the British refused to help them. Native Americans were defeated. • Twelve tribes signed the Treaty of Greenville in 1795, they agreed to cede (give) or surrender their land to the U.S.

  21. The Whiskey Rebellion • The first national tax was the whiskey tax. • A new tax brings conflict (Sin Tax) • Farmers from Pennsylvania to Georgia were upset about a new tax on whiskey. • Farmers used wheat and other grains to make whiskey or other forms of alcohol . • Whiskey was used to pay bills, to trade for other goods and it was easier to haul than bushels.

  22. Pennsylvania Farmers Summer of 1794 Staged a rebellion Beat up tax collectors Tar and Feather Threatened an armed attack on Pittsburgh. October 1794 Washington sent an army to crush the rebellion. Washington proved that the president could make people follow the laws. The Whiskey Rebellion

  23. The French Revolution • 1789 • French citizens inspired by the American Revolution, rebel against their government. • 1792 • The revolution becomes brutal and thousands of citizens are massacred. • 1793 • The king and queen of France were executed.

  24. The French Revolution • Other European monarchs (kings and queens) believed the revolution threatened their own thrones. • France declared war on Britain, Spain and Holland • The war placed the U.S. in an awkward position • We signed a treaty with France during our revolution. • Washington issues declaration of neutrality in April 1793. • We would remain friendly with both Britain and France. • America depends on England for trade

  25. Staying Neutral • America would like to keep trading and have good relations with both countries (France and Britain) • France and Britain are at war • Disturb each others trade and stop supplies from being imported to each others countries. • America is dependent on trade with England, so we must negotiate a new friendship (treaty) with them.

  26. Staying Neutral! • Britain seizing cargo ships carrying goods to the French West Indies! • G.W. sent John Jay to Britain for talks. • Jay’s Treaty, 1794 (unpopular in the U.S.) • Made with the British. • Seizing of ships------They don’t stop • Agreed to pay for damages------- They don’t • British forts in the NW territory • British agreed to leave by 1796- They don’t • Open Up British West Indies Trade • Failed

  27. Staying Neutral! • Pinckney’s Treaty • 1795 • Treaty made with Spain • Gave Americans the right to travel and ship goods on the Mississippi River • Gave Americans the right of deposit (store goods) at the port of New Orleans with out paying custom duties (taxes on imports). • Spain also accepted the U.S. southern boundary.

  28. Washington retires and returns to private life. • Served eight years (two terms) in office (1789-1797). Mount Vernon (Washington’s Home) General George Washington departed this life on the 14 of December, 1799.

  29. In his Farewell Address (speech) he warns America against.. • Spirit of Party (political parties) • “…the common & continual mischief's of the spirit of Party are sufficient to make it the interest and the duty of a wise People to discourage and restrain it.” • State or Sectional • Factional (Political)

  30. Making Foreign Alliances (treaties) • “It opens the door to foreign influence & corruption, which find a facilitated access to the government itself through the channels of party passions. Thus the policy and the will of one country, are subjected to the policy and will of another.” Treaty

  31. The Federalists Take Charge Chapter 9 (pp.287-291)

  32. Thomas Jefferson • Cut him out- Dark Jacket • Paste him on page 7 of your spiral and title the picture. • Look on page 288 to find what Thomas Jefferson’s vision for America’s future. • What is the name of Jefferson’s Political Party? • Alexander Hamilton • Cut him out-Lighter Jacket • Paste him on page 8 of your spiral and title the picture. • Look on page 288 to find what Alexander Hamilton’s vision for America’s future. • What is the name of Hamilton’s Political Party?

  33. Creation of Political Parties • George Washington’s cabinet became bitterly divided over the direction America was taking in its first eight years. • America’s first two political parties were formed. • Federalists (Alexander Hamilton-founder) • The men who favored the strong union and who fought for the adoption of the Constitution by the various states. These men also backed Alexander Hamilton in the cabinet when different political philosophies became apparent. • Anti-Federalists (would become Democratic-Republicans) (Thomas Jefferson and James Madison-founders) • Thomas Jefferson (Secretary of State) resigned in 1793 and went home to Virginia.

  34. Thomas Jefferson Democratic-Republicans Limited National Govt. Power closer to the people. Less abuse. Fear of rule by one person or a group. Economy based on farming. (agriculture, agrarian society) Strict Interpretation of the Constitution Opposed a national bank Supported by farmers, tradesmen Alexander Hamilton Federalist Party Strong National Govt. Fear rule by a mob (common people) Economy based on manufacturing and trading. Loose Interpretation of the Constitution For the national bank Supported by lawyers, merchants, manufacturers, and clergy. Different Ideas about America

  35. Senses for Thomas Jefferson • Sight- Farming Nation • I see American farms growing all types of food to feed our growing nation. I can’t see America growing up in crowded cities. • Smell- • I smell corn, wheat, rye, barley, tobacco, and cotton grown by our farmers. America needs to continue to use the land God gave us. • Hear- • Taste- • Feelings- • (Emotions)- • (Touch)- • Slogan-

  36. John Adams Takes Office • 1796 • John Adams (Federalist) vs. Thomas Jefferson (Democratic Republican) • Electoral College Voted • John Adams-71 votes • Thomas Jefferson-68 votes • The U.S. had a Federalist president and a Democratic Republican vice-president. • The capital is moved to Washington D.C.

  37. XYZ Affair • Remember Britain and France are still at war. • France is seizing and looting cargo from our ships • 1797 – 300 American ships were attacked by France • Federalists start to call for war. • John Adams sends ambassadors to France to try and negotiate. • They try and meet with the French minister of foreign affairs and are ignored. • Three French agents named X, Y, and Z tell the Americans if they loan France 10 million dollars and pay a 250,000 dollar bribe, the minister will meet with them. • Outraged Congress and the American public. • 1798-We canceled our treaties and began to seize French ships. • Congress expanded the American navy and army.

  38. Alien and Sedition Acts • The Federalists tried to control voting and newspapers as part of their fight with the Democratic-Republicans. • Didn’t want immigrants to become citizens to vote. • Wanted to stop Democratic Republican Newspapers from writing bad things about John Adams • Federalists-Passed the Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798 (four laws) • Targeted Aliens (Immigrants who were not citizens) • Increased the time to become a citizen from 5 to 14 years. • Arrest disloyal aliens and deport them • Targeted Newspapers • Saying or writing of anything harmful about the government • No free press or speech

  39. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions • Proposed legislation by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison • To fight the Alien and Sedition Acts • Argued for STATES RIGHTS • States had rights that the U.S. government could not violate (take away). • States had the right to nullify (ignore, not follow) a federal law. • Alien and Sedition Acts violated (don’t follow) the rights guaranteed in the Constitution so the states can nullify them. • The Dem. Rep. party will repeal the Acts or let them expire when they take office in 1800.

  40. 1. What is a tariff? A. It allows America to charge other countries an export tax. B. It allows America to trade freely with any country it wants to. C. It is a tax imposed on imported goods in America. D. It is a fee that landowners pay to the national government

  41. 2. Alexander Hamilton’s financial plan included which of the following? A. encouraging spending for national defense B. favoring financial assistance for agriculture over industry C. tariffs to raise $ for payment of the nation’s debts D. taxing only the people most able to pay

  42. 3.Which statement BEST describes a major result of the Whiskey Rebellion? A. The new government halted the production of whiskey. B. People realized that the new government would execute all violent protesters. C. The new government proved too weak to respond in times of crisis. D. People realized that the new government was strong enough to enforce laws.

  43. 4.The first two political parties in the United States developed as a result of Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton’s disagreement over the – A. Interpretation of the constitution and national banks B. Balance of power between the federal and state governments C. Departments that would be included in the President’s cabinet D. Laws that would be used to govern the western territories

  44. 5.Disagreements between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson over the power given to the National Government was one of the things that led to the development of the – A. Great Compromise B. National judicial system C. Political party system D. President’s Cabinet

  45. 6.Another factor that led to the formation of the first two political parties in the United States in the 1790s was the conflict over the – A. acquisition of lands from France and Spain B. control of interstate commerce C. spread of slavery into the western territories D. whether the economy should be based on farming or manufacturing

  46. 7.What were the two things Washington’s Farewell Address warned America about? A. Staying out of debt & building a military B. Moving west & Indian relationships C. Forming of Political Parties & foreign alliances D. Fighting in wars & industrialization

  47. 8. Which statement best describes a foreign policy followed by President George Washington? A. He adopted a position of neutrality. B. He formed alliances with European nations. C. He sent aid to French revolutionaries. D. He supported expansion into British Canada

  48. 9.Who was the target of the Alien and Sedition Acts? A. People who were sympathetic to the nation of France B. Federalists who supported John Adams C. Immigrants who were not yet citizens D. The state legislatures of Kentucky & Virginia

  49. 10. The Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions stated that states had the right to do what? • Declare war against another country • Nullify (ignore) a law they believed was no constitutional • Control all trading • Make their own laws about immigration

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