Geography and Early Greek Civilization In this lesson, students will identify characteristics of Greece’s geography and its impact on the development of ancient cultures. Students will be able to identify and/or define the following terms and concepts: The Geography of Greece Geographic Effects on Greek cultures Polis
Greece is a mountainous peninsula with islands.
The Geography of Greece • Ancient Greece consisted of a large mountainous peninsula and islands in the Aegean Sea. • Its hilly terrain made farming difficult • Its location encouraged trade.
The Effects of Mountains • Greece’s mountainous terrain separated the ancient Greek cities. • As such, the ancient Greeks never developed a unified system of government. • The ancient Greeks developed the polis or city-state.
The Polis • Polis was the Greek word for “city-state”. • A polis was an independent city and its surrounding farmland. • Every polis had its own government and laws but the Greeks shared a common language and religion.
The ancient Greeks farmed but it was difficult. Hills are not suited for farming.
Even today, the Greeks have access to the Mediterranean Sea and the Aegean Sea.
The Seas • Greece is a peninsula and islands. • Seas surround parts of Greece. • The Seas allowed the Greeks to travel and trade. • Trade encouraged cultural diffusion.
Trade and Cultural Diffusion • The seas allowed the Greeks to depend heavily on trade. • Trade encouraged cultural diffusion. • The Greeks were exposed to the Phoenician alphabet and Egyptian geometry.
Questions for Reflection: • Why was it difficult to farm in ancient Greece? • Why did the Greeks depend heavily on trade? • List two geographic features and their effects on the Greeks. • Why did the ancient Greeks never develop a unified system of government? • Define polis.
The Greek City-States In this lesson, students will identify characteristics of the Greek city-states. Students will be able to identify and/ or define the following terms: Polis Golden Age Democracy Helots
It is important to remember that mountains separated the Greek city-states.
The Polis • The hilly terrain separated the Greeks. Though the Greeks shared a common language and religion, they never developed a unified system of government. • The Greeks lived in separate, independent city-states. • The Greek word for a “city-state” was a polis.
This magnificent building is the Parthenon. The Parthenon was a temple in Athens, a Greek polis.
Athens • Athens was an important polis in ancient Greece. • The people of Athens developed democracy. • Democracy is a system of government where citizens vote or participate in government.
In Athenian democracy, only free men born in Athens could vote. Women, slaves, and foreigners could not vote.
This is a painting of the famous Athenian philosopher, Socrates. He encouraged his followers to ask questions.
The Golden Age of Athens • Athens experienced a golden age. • A golden age is a time of peace, prosperity, and great achievements. • The Athenians produced great works of literature, philosophy, and art.
Sparta • Sparta was a militaristic polis. • In Sparta, all men had to serve in the military. • Weak or disabled babies were left to die.
A Spartan’s life revolved around the military. A Spartan man was a soldier for most of his life.
Helots • The Spartans had helots or slaves. • The helots farmed for the Spartans. • While the helots farmed, the Spartans focused on military affairs. • Life in Sparta differed greatly from life in Athens.
Questions for Reflection: • What was a polis and why did the Greeks develop the polis? • Define a golden age and name a Greek polis that experienced a golden age. • List three differences between the ancient Greek polis of Athens and Sparta. • Who were the helots and how were they treated? • Describe Athenian democracy.
War Tests the Greeks In this lesson, students will identify characteristics of the Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian War. Students will be able to identify and/or define the following terms: Causes of the Persian Wars Effects of the Persian Wars Causes of the Peloponnesian War Effects of the Peloponnesian War
The Persians and the Greeks • In 519 B.C., the Persians conquered a group of people called the Ionian Greeks who lived in Asia Minor. • The Ionian Greeks asked the mainland Greeks for help. • The Greeks did help and the Persian king was furious.
The Persian Wars • The Persian army outnumbered the Athenian army. • However, the smaller Greek ships could move easily in the water. The Greek ships destroyed the Persian ships. • Many Greek city-states also united to defeat the Persians.
Look at the map! Can you see why the smaller Greek ships had an advantage?
The Alliance • After the Persian Wars, the Greek city-states united. • Each city-state agreed to give money or ships to be used to defend all of them. Athens led the alliance. The alliance was called the Delian League. • However, Athens used the alliance money to rebuild Athens.
The Peloponnesian War • Athens betrayed the trust of the alliance. • The other Greek city-states declared war on Athens. • This war was called the Peloponnesian War.
Summation of Wars • The Persian Wars strengthened the Greek city-states. • However, the Peloponnesian War weakened the Greek city-states. • Sparta led the alliance against Athens.
War strengthened the Greeks and war weakened the Greeks.
Questions for Reflection: • Why did the Persians invade Greece? • Why did the Persian Wars strengthen the Greeks? • Define the Delian League. • Why did the Peloponnesian War begin? • Why did the Peloponnesian War weaken the Greeks?
The Legacy of Classical Greece In this lesson, students will be able to identify accomplishments of classical Greek civilization. Students will be able to identify and/or define the following terms: Democracy Parthenon Socrates Pythagoras
A classical civilization is a civilization that has given the world important ideas and inventions that people still use today.
Ancient Greek civilization is considered a classical civilization.
Athenian Democracy • The ancient Greek city-state of Athens developed the first democratic government. • A democracy is a system of government where citizens participate in government. • Only free men born in Athens could be citizens. Women, slaves, and foreigners could not vote.
The ancient Athenians were the first people to use voting as a form of participation in government.
Architecture • The Greeks built temples with beautiful columns. • Greek architecture still influences people today. • Many government buildings in the United States are modeled after Greek temples.
The Parthenon was a Greek temple to the goddess, Athena. Notice the use of columns.
The U.S. Supreme Court building is clearly influenced by the Parthenon.