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Anatomy & Physiology 2

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Anatomy & Physiology 2

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  1. Anatomy & Physiology 2 Study of the Body’s Systems

  2. Are you in the right class? Anatomy and Physiology 2 Tues 9:00 am – 1:00 pm Cailin Lawler, LMT 860-508-3336 balancemt@hotmail.com www.BalanceMassageCT.com

  3. Logistics • Come prepared to class • Memmler’s • Course Manual • Completed week’s reading • Completed week’s feedback sheet • BE ON TIME!! • BE ON TIME!! (yes, it’s listed twice) • Follow dress code • WEAR YOUR SHIRTS • No food/drink in classroom • NO CELL PHONES!!!!! • Trust me, no cell phones

  4. It is HIGHLY recommended that you do NOT miss a class, but if you MUST…. • You MUST contact me. By text, by voice mail, by phone, by smoke signal, by carrier pigeon, by Morse Code, by whatever means necessary. • Best alternative is sitting in with another section. Coordinate with Nancy in Student Services. • Get the notes and handouts that you missed. Do this ASAP. • DO NOT wait until it gets closer to the exam.

  5. Speaking of Exams…. • This class has 3 exams, structured mostly as multiple choice, T/F, matching, and some short answer. • Dates:_2/12, 3/12, 4/9___________

  6. Class 1 Homeostasis Body Cavities and Membranes Introduction to the Nervous System

  7. and…… what the “heck” do we need to know the systems of the body for?! Knowing human anatomy will help you understand how the body reacts to the massage you will administer to your client. It will help you prepare for Pathology class, which will allow you to alter your massage to accommodate your client’s special needs and maximize the benefits of massage.

  8. And so…..the Systems of the Body

  9. Homeostasis • Homeostasis is one of the fundamental characteristics of living things. • Maintenance of the internal environment so as to maintain a stable, constant condition.

  10. Homeostasis • The Body is all about balance. • In balance = runs perfectly. • Out of balance = Dis-ease. • Bodies are constantly fine tuning , releasing and inhibiting things, all to keep balance with the internal environment.

  11. The main process that our bodies use to achieve this is something that’s called:Negative Feedback • A feedback in which the system responds in an opposite direction of the current biological reaction. • It is a self-regulatory system where the goal is to re-establish equilibrium, or homeostasis within the system.

  12. Example of Negative FeedbackBody Temperature Regulation

  13. Negative Feedback Ex) Blood Sugar Levels

  14. Positive Feedback • A feedback in which the system responds in the same direction of the current biological reaction. • It is a self-regulatory system where the goal is to amplify the reaction to create a bigger change. • Ex) Blood Clot, Uterine Contractions, Allergic Reactions, Lactation

  15. Example of Positive FeedbackUterine Contractions

  16. Body Cavities

  17. Thoracic Cavity MembranesPleural membranes

  18. Pericardial membranes

  19. Peritoneal Membranes

  20. The Communication System Endocrine System Nervous system (hormones) Central Nervous System Peripheral Nervous System (Brain & Spinal Cord) (Spinal & Cranial Nerves) Sensory/Afferent Division Motor/Efferent Division (Impulses from receptors to CNS) (Impulses from CNS toward effector organ) Somatic Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System (Voluntary, skeletal muscles) (Involuntary, glands/cardiac muscle/smooth muscle) Sympathetic Division Parasympathetic Division (fight & flight) (rest & digest)

  21. Cells of the Nervous System The Neuron

  22. Neuroglial Cells

  23. Formation of a Myelin Sheath • Schwann cells wrap around the axon, creating a myelin coating. (B) The outermost layer of the Schwann cell forms the neurilemma. Space between each myelin sheath is the nodes (of Ranvier).

  24. Motor Sensory • General Functions of the Nervous System • Receiving the information (sensory/afferent) • Coordinating the information (Integrate) • Respond to information (motor/efferent)

  25. Sensory Receptors hear phone ring Sensory neurons transmit impulse toward spinal cord & brain Interneurons process information Brain interprets sound Motor neurons transmit impulse to effector organ Arm/hand picks up ringing phone

  26. Neuron Impulses

  27. Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Resting Membrane Potential • Notes: • The sodium pump, during RMP, pumps sodium out and pulls potassium in. • Potassium can flow back and forth, but sodium is too big to diffuse back inside. • Large negative ions (usually proteins) are too large to diffuse, so the overall charge is negative inside (-70mv); this is called polarized. Outside the Cell Notes: Inside the Cell

  28. Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- Depolarization • Notes: • When another neuron stimulates this neuron enough to bring it’s charge from -70mv to -40mv, it reaches it’s Threshold Potential. • At that time, the sodium gates open up, allowing sodium to rush IN (remember SIN). • This swings the overall inside charge from negative to positive (+30mv). Outside the Cell Notes: Inside the Cell

  29. Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- • Notes: • When the neuron’s charge reaches +30mv, the sodium gates swing closed and the potassium gates swing open. • This causes the potassium ions to rush out (remember POUT). • This brings the overall charge of the neuron more negative (just below -70mv). • The time directly after these events (Action Potential) is called the Refractory Period and the neuron can not be stimulated again until the sodium pump gets the charge back to -70mv. Repolarization Outside the Cell Notes: Inside the Cell

  30. Sodium gates close Potassium gates close Potassium gates open, potassium rushes OUT Sodium gates open, sodium rushes IN +30mv Action Potential = 1/1000 sec 0mv Refractory Period Depolarization Repolarization Threshold Potential -40mv Sub-threshold Stimulation -70mv Resting Membrane Potential (Polarized) Ready to accept another stimulation Resting Membrane Potential (Polarized)

  31. Neural Synapse Junction between two neurons

  32. Synapse

  33. Convergence “from many to one” Divergence “from one to many” Allows nervous system to collect a variety of information, process it, and respond to it in a special way. Amplifies Impulse Ex) creating a stronger muscle contraction

  34. Neurotransmitters Just a few…. Acetylcholine - voluntary movement of the skeletal muscles (via the sympathetic pathways) and movement of the viscera (via the parasympathetic pathways) EXCITATORY & INHIBITORY Norepinephrine - wakefulness or arousal - via the sympathetic pathways EXCITATORY Epinephrine - similar to nor-epinephrine. Large amounts of it are produced and are released by the adrenal glands. Also called adrenaline. EXCITATORY Dopamine - voluntary movement and motivation, "wanting", pleasure, associated with addiction and love EXCITATORY Serotonin - memory, emotion, wakefulness, sleep and temperature regulation EXCITATORY Glutamate - the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system EXCITATORY GABA - the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. INHIBITORY Glycine - spinal reflexes and motor behavour INHIBITORY

  35. Thank goodness!!!