Background to the Reformation • Popes competed with Italian princes for political power. • Like the princes, Popes led lavish lives • To finance the church and support the Popes the clergy sold indulgences • Indulgences could be bought from the church and would lessen the time the soul spends in purgatory.
Martin Luther: Catalyst of Change • In 1517 a German Monk, Martin Luther triggered a revolt against the Catholic Church.
Johann Tetzel • In 1517 Tetzel, who was a priest, set up a pulpit outside of Wittenberg, Germany and sold indulgences for the living and the dead. • Who cannot afford an indulgent and therefore cannot go to heaven?
Martin Luther Attacks.. • Martin Luther argues that indulgences have no basis on the Bible and that the Pope had no authority to release souls from purgatory. • Writes and distributes the 95 Theses, even nails a copy to the church doors.
In 1521, Pope Leo X excommunicates Luther • Charles V, the new Holy Roman Emperor calls Luther to the Diet (assembly of princes). • Charles V asked Luther to recant and he refused • Why did Luther refuse to retract his statements?
Lutheranism • Forbids indulgences, confessions, pilgrimages, and prayers to saints. • The bible is the only truth and people need to read and interpret it themselves. • 1530 Lutherans began to call themselves Protestants because they protested papal authority
The Peasant’s Revolt • Erupted in Germany as peasants demanded reform and an end to serfdom • The Peasant’s Revolt grew violent and Martin Luther denounced the revolt • Tens of thousands died
Peace of Augsburg • 1555 each prince was allowed to decided what religion-Catholic or Lutheran, their kingdom would be.
Calvinism • John Calvin was born in France and a well trained priest and lawyer • Calvin preached predestination • Calvin set up a Swiss city-state in Geneva, the government was made up of church leaders
Anabaptists • Reject infant baptisms • Sought radical change like abolishing private property • Baptists, Mennonites and Amish all trace their ancestry to the Anabaptists
Henry the VIII • Wanted an annulment because he had only one surviving daughter, Mary Tudor. • Henry the VIII wanted to marry a young noblewoman and have a male heir with her. • The Pope refused to grant the annulment • Henry VIII takes over the church of England and passes the Act of Supremacy. • Henry marries the noble woman and she has a daughter Elizabeth I.
Many English Catholics are opposed to the Act of Supremacy and are therefore beheaded, including Sir Thomas Moore. • Henry orders the Catholic convents and monasteries to close because they are “immoral”. He gives the land to his nobles. • 1547 Henry Dies, leaves the throne to 9yr old Edward VI, he dies in his teens.
Mary Tudor • Determined to return England to the catholic faith • Mary dies in 1558, the throne goes to Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I • Elizabethan Settlement- a series of reforms in England • Restored The Book of Common Prayer • Her practices were the common ground between Protestants and Catholics • She returned England to mostly Protestant beliefs.
The Catholic Reformation • 1530’s Pope Paul III sets out to revive the Catholic faith in Europe and end corruption in the papacy by using serious penalties.
Council of Trent • In 1545 established the direction of the Catholic Church • Declared that salvation comes from faith and good works • Ended abuses in the Catholic Church
Finding the Jesuits • Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Jesuits, drew up a strict code for Jesuits or Society of Jesus • Jesuits became advisors to Catholic leaders • By the 1500s and 1600s persecution was widespread. Tens of thousand died during witch hunts. • Their main goal was to defend, restore, and spread the Catholic Faith
Persecuting Jews • 1516 Venice ordered Jews to live in separate quarters called the ghetto. • During the Reformation restrictions on people of the Jewish faith increased.
Venn Diagram Judaism • God, Yahweh • Abraham- their leader • Settled Canaan- later exiled for 1,800 years Christianity • God • Jesus or Christ • Few Christians live in Southwest Asia today but still is considered Christian holy place.
Islam • God- Allah • Muhammad, born in Mecca and later fled to Medina • His sacred writings are in the Koran All Three • Monotheistic • Started with one leader • All have sacred writings.
Martin Luther implies that the invention of the printing press was essential to the spread of new ideas during the Reformation, the invention of printing was due to God’s grace. Luther believed that everyone should have equal access to God through faith and the Bible and it should be printed in vernacular. Access to printed materials helped to make faith possible to everyone.
In the Middle Ages, the Church granted indulgences for money. Many humanist Christians saw this practice as another example of Church abuse. Martin Luther’s 95 Theses against indulgences ignited the Protestant reform movement.
Henry VIII, the king of England, had a daughter by his first wife, Catherine of Aragon. However, he wanted a male heir to the throne. Since the Catholic Church did not allow divorce, Henry asked for an annulment. The pope refused, Henry then established the Act of Supremacy which allowed Henry as the head of the Church of England, now protestant.
Martin Luther and John Calvin are outraged by the sale of indulgences by the Church, both feel they are church abuses. Martin Luther thought Christians could only be saved through reading the bible and faith. Calvin believed that God had predetermined who would be saved.